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' This country, which does not always err in vaunting its own productions.' 

HORACE WALPOLE'S Anecdotes of Painting in England. 



|) rrsilini! : 



*BELL, C. F. 

CAW, J. L. 





*FINBERG, A. J., Hon. Secretary 
*HIND, A. M. 


*HUGHES, C. E., Hon. Treasurer 





OPPK, A. P. 






* Members of the Executive Committee. 

All communications and subscriptions should be sent to 

ALEXANDER J. FIN BERG, Hon. Secretary, 

47, Holland Road, Kensington, W. 14. 






Index of Portraits, Statues, and Artists mentioned in the 

Lumley Inventories .47-50 

Index of Works of Art other than Portraits . . 50 




E. RlMBAULT DlBDIN 59~9 l 

Index 92-93 







Introduction ... .113-115 

Calendar of Papers from 12 Nov. 1759 to 31 July 1761 116-127 
Index of Names of Artists and of those who received 

Charity . . 128-130 



Frontispiece, see Plate XXXIX. 

I. Portrait of John Digby, ist Earl of Bristol. By Cornelius Johnson, 

II. (a) Enlargement of the Seal Ring in Johnson's Portrait of the ist Earl 

of Bristol. 

(b) The ist Earl of Bristol. An Engraving published about 1623, 
perhaps by R. Elstrack. 

III. Van Dyck and the Earl of Bristol. By Sir Anthony Van Dyck. 

IV. (a) Endymion Porter. By William Dobson. 

(b) Endymion Porter. Part of a drawing by Van Dyck. 
V. Portrait of an Unknown Man. By Cornelius Johnson. 
VI. Philip Herbert, Earl of Montgomery (afterwards Earl of Pembroke). 
Reversed from the Engraving, made before 1623, by Simon 
de Passe. 


VII. Sculptures in Great Hall, Lumley Castle. 
VIII. (a) Conduit in Court, Lumley Castle. 

(b) Hall Screen and Lavabo, Lumley Castle. 
IX. (a) Fountain. 
(b) Fountain. 
X. (a) Lavabo and Screen, Lumley Castle. 

(b) Marble Serving Table, Lumley Castle. 

(c) Fountain. 

(d) Obelisk with Arms of Lord Lumley. 

XI. (a) Column with Crest of Lord Lumley, and Two Tables. 

(b) Column with Crest of Lord Lumley. 

(c) Fountain and Table. 

(d) Fountain. 
XII. (a) Tables. 

(b) Tables. 
XIII. (a) Tables. 

(b) Mantelpiece. 



XIV. (a) Design for Tomb of Lord Lumley, Cheam Church. 

(b) Design for Tomb of Jane Fitzalan, Lady Lumley, Cheam Church. 
XV. Design for Tomb of Elizabeth D'Arcy, Lady Lumley, Cheam 

XVI. An Artists' Club in 1735. By Gawen Hamilton. 
XVII. Part of Vertue's Note on Hamilton's Group of Artists. 
XVIII. The Revd. Thomas Pocock. By Gawen Hamilton. Engraved in 

mezzotint by J. Faber, junr., 1726. 

XIX. Warren Hastings on Horseback. By George Stubbs, 1791. 
XX. (a) Haymakers. By George Stubbs, 1794. 
(b) Hay Carting. By George Stubbs, 1795. 
XXI. (a) The Haymakers. By George Stubbs, 1783. 

(b) The Reapers. By George Stubbs, 1783. 
XXII. Josiah Wedgwood on Horseback. By George Stubbs. 
XXIII. A Philosopher giving that Lecture on the Orrery, in which a Lamp 

is put in the Place of the Sun. By Joseph Wright. 
XXIV. (a) View of the Custom House, taken from Trafford's Wyent, 1773. 

By Peter Perez Burdett. 

(b) A Seapiece, with a Squall of Rain. By Richard Wright, 1764. 
XXV. (a) Richard Caddick. By Himself. 

(b) George Stubbs (?). By Richard Caddick (?). 

(c) George Stubbs. By Ozias Humphry. 
XXVI. (a) Cattle. By Charles Towne. 

(b) Landscape, by Rathbone, with figures by Fairfield. 
XXVII. (a) Landscape. By Rathbone. 
(b) Landscape. By Rathbone. 

XXVIII. (a) Thomas Johnson, Mayor of Liverpool, 1767. By Henry 

(b) Wife and daughter of Thomas Johnson, 1767. By Henry 


(c) Richard Chaffers. By Thomas Chubbard. 

(d) Aaron Wood. By William Caddick, 1747. 

XXIX. (a) William Roscoe, when a young Man. By Richard Caddick. 

(b) Mrs. Proudlove (nee Elizabeth Wood). By Richard Caddick, 


(c) Conversation Piece. By Richard Caddick. 

XXX. (a) James, loth Earl of Derby. By Hamlet Winstanley. Engraved 

by Van der Gucht. 

(b) Mrs. Hamlet Winstanley. By Hamlet Winstanley. Engraved by 
J. Faber. 



XXXI. (a) The Liverpool Library and Academy. Drawn by Charles Eyes, 


(b) Joseph Brooks, Treasurer of the Parish of Liverpool. By Richard 
Caddick, 1774. 


XXXII. St. David's Head, from Porthsallie Bay. 

XXXIII. The Bishop's Throne, St. David's Cathedral. 

XXXIV. The Cascade, Hampton Court, Herefordshire. 
XXXV. Water-Colour Drawing of The Cascade. 

XXXVI. The Market-Place, Ross. 

XXXVII. The West Gate Bridge, Gloucester. 

XXXVIII. The Corona, Canterbury Cathedral, with the Chair of St. Augustine. 

XXXIX. Maidstone Bridge, with Houses and Shipping, 1798. (Frontispiece.) 

XL. Allington Castle, near Maidstone, 1798. 

XLI. Christ Church, Oxford. 

XLII. Captain Roberts, R.N. By Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1747. 
XLI 1 1. Thomas and Martha Neate with their Tutor. By Sir Joshua 

Reynolds, 1748. 
XLIV. Portrait supposed to represent Frances Howard, Countess of Essex 

and Countess of Somerset. Probably by Marcus Gheeraerts 

the younger. 



CORNELIUS JOHNSON was born in London, and not, as Walpole thought, in 
Amsterdam. This point was settled by the publication of Mr. Lionel Gust's 
notes on ' Foreign Artists of the Reformed Religion working in London 
from about 1560 to 1660' (Proceedings of the Huguenot Society of London, 
vol. vii), in which attention was drawn to the following entry in the registers of 
the Dutch Church at Austin Friars : 

' 14 Oct. 1593. JANSZ. Cornelis, f. Cornells.' 

This is believed to refer to the baptism of the artist who is usually described as 
Cornelius Jansen, or Janssen van Ceulen, who lived and worked in England, 
so far as we know, from the date of his birth till the outbreak of the Civil 
War in 1643, when he went to Holland. During these fifty years the artist 
seems to have regarded himself as an Englishman and to have called himself 
Cornelius Johnson. Pictures by him dated 1619, 1620, 1621, and 1634 ( at 
Northwick Park, the Holburne Art Museum, Bath, Welbeck Abbey, Lord Falk- 
land's, and Woburn) are known to me which are signed in full 'Cornelius 
Johnson '. It is also evident, as Mr. Cust has pointed out (Burlington Magazine, 
February 1910), that the painter was desirous of being recognized as an English 
armigerous gentleman, for he supplied the following pedigree to the Herald's 
Visitation of London, 1633-5, by Sir Henry St. George, Richmond Herald 
(published by the Harleian Society in 1883) : 

Peter Johnson of Cullen=T= 

John Johnson of the City of Antwerpe=j=Ephemia von Cuchelen. 


Cornelius Johnson of Antwerpe=f=Jane le Grand. 

Cornelius Johnson of the Blackfryars, London=j=Elizabeth do. of Mr. Beek. 


Cornelius Johnson, sonne and heir. 
Johnson's family therefore came originally from Cologne to Antwerp, and from 

VI. B 


Antwerp to London, and they were probably among the refugees from the 
Duke of Alva's persecution in 1568. The registers of the Dutch Church also 
contain the entry of the artist's marriage on July 16, 1622, to ' Elizabeth Beke 
of Colchester '. 

But after Johnson left England in 1643 he seems to have modified the 
spelling of his name. In Mrs. Stewart Mackenzie's collection I have seen 
a portrait of an 'Unknown Lady', signed 'Cornelius Jonson van Ceulen, fecit. 
1654 ', and another ' Unknown Lady ', owned till recently by Mrs. Joseph, dated 
1655, is signed in the same way; as is also the portrait of ' Adriaan van Blyen- 
burgh', dated 1654, in the Rijks-Museum at Amsterdam. 

With Johnson's work after 1643 the Walpole Society is not directly con- 
cerned, but his work before 1643 is of very great interest to us. An English- 
man by birth, and, so far as we know, trained entirely in England, his works 
stand out from the mass of contemporary portraits painted here by Dutch 
and Flemish artists as typically national in feeling and sentiment. Johnson is 
certainly one of the first of the great English portrait-painters outside the ranks 
of the miniaturists, and, if only for this reason, the Walpole Society ought to 
regard it as one of its pressing duties to make his works better known and more 
widely appreciated than they are at present. In addition there is the historical 
interest of his work. From about 1616 to 1643 he was the portrait-painter par 
excellence of the English nobility and gentry. In bulk his work of this kind 
greatly outnumbers that of any artist of the period ; and in quality, as truthful, 
sincere, and sympathetic portraiture, his works are more precious than those of 
any of his rivals, English or foreign. Anything like a complete series of repro- 
ductions of Johnson's English portraits would do much towards the establish- 
ment of his reputation, and I hope that at no very distant date the Walpole 
Society will be in a position to publish something of the kind. Much of the 
work involved in such a publication is, fortunately, already done, but for what 
remains to be done I am afraid we must wait till the War is over. 

On the present occasion I can only hope to introduce the subject of Corne- 
lius Johnson's work in England by offering a note on his anonymous portraits, 
with special reference to two of them which I believe I may possibly have 

Probably few of the portraits Johnson painted in England have been 
destroyed, and those which have been preserved have generally been well taken 
care of. But in a number of cases these works have become separated from the 
families for which they were originally painted, and the names of the men and 
women they represent are either lost or else have become confounded. The 
result is that the student of Johnson's work is confronted with a mass of portraits 
of unknown persons, which are scattered among private and public collections, 
whose owners or keepers know only that they were picked up at auction or 


bought through dealers who had no record of the families from which they were 

The loss of the names of the sitters is a much greater loss in the case of 
Johnson's portraits than in those of any other contemporary portrait-painter in 
England. In appreciation of character, in psychological insight and sympathy, 
and in the delicacy and precision of his rendering of the personality of his 
sitters, Johnson surpasses all the portrait-painters who worked in England 
during his time. In Van Dyck's case, for instance, it matters little whether the 
names of his English sitters are known or not, because Van Dyck cared little for 
the personality of his sitters. He painted the typical cavalier, his lady, and his 
frail friends ; he tricked them out with all the skill of a modern actor-manager 
in splendid finery, and surrounded them with an atmosphere of romantic and 
theatrical pathos. He was not concerned so much to paint portraits as to 
produce incomparable decorations and backgrounds for stately dining-rooms 
and lordly saloons. It is true that he never descended to the depths of gross, 
unblushing servility and flattery to which his master, Rubens, fell in, let us say, 
the Medici series in the Luxembourg, or the odious equestrian portrait of the 
Duke of Buckingham, at Osterley Park. Van Dyck's flatteries and untruths are 
infinitely more tactful than Rubens's bombastic absurdities. But it is always 
with the clothes, rank, and worldly possessions of his sitters that Van Dyck is 
primarily concerned ; their personality was merely the subject of a hasty and 
superficial glance intended to give a touch of actuality to a plausible pictorial 
compliment or a specious and interesting fable. I yield to no one in admiration 
of Van Dyck's pictorial mastery and fertility, but as a portrait-painter I find that 
his works I am speaking in particular of his portraits painted in England of 
people of less than royal rank have a vitiated historical and only a meagre 
personal interest. And if any of his indiscriminate admirers wish to differ from 
me, I shall ask them to compare Johnson's portrait of the shy, gentle, winning 
and adorable, if slightly ' melancholic ', Dorothy Percy, the mother of ' Sacha- 
rissa', which some years ago was in the possession of Messrs. Wallis and Son, 
of the French Gallery, with the flaunting and commonplace hussy of Van Dyck's 
portrait of the same lady in the Basildon Park and Petworth collections, and 
tell me frankly which of the two has the greater value and interest as an historical 
or human document. 

The loss of the names of a considerable number of Johnson's portraits 
seems to me, therefore, a very serious loss from the artistic as well as from 
the historical point of view. It prevents us from connecting what we know or 
might know about the sitter with the portrait, and thus hinders us from fully 
understanding and appreciating the artist's work, and it prevents us from using 
the artist's work to illustrate and amplify our knowledge of history. I have 
no doubt that some of our ' advanced ' critics will sneer at me for saying 

B 2 


this, because, according to their theories, it is even an advantage not to know 
the name of the person represented in a portrait, as the attention is then 
concentrated on the painting itself, and the temptation to supplement what they 
see with what they consider irrelevant knowledge is thus removed. Other 
critics like anonymous portraits because their active fancy is thus free to imagine 
anything they please about the unknown sitters. But I must confess that I am 
sufficiently old-fashioned to want to know the name of the person represented in 
a portrait, and that the absence of such knowledge, especially when Johnson's 
works are concerned, seems to me a serious loss. I know that when looking at 
some of his portraits of unknown men and women, after I have admired the 
beautiful workmanship, the subtle drawing, the delicate and masterly modelling, 
and the exquisite surface of the paint, I have always found myself wondering 
who the sitters may have been, what rank in society they have moved in, and 
what fortunes and misfortunes life may have held for them. The absence of the 
usual clues to such knowledge has always mingled an element of loss and dis- 
appointment as of something baffling and tragic with the enjoyment derived 
from the picture itself. The work itself to my mind lacked completeness, 
because it did not evoke the full measure of understanding and sympathy which 
it was intended to promote. There was a delightful personality, I seemed to feel, 
full of human qualities and subtly individualized, thrown into the air, as it were, 
and obstinately refusing to take any definite place in the ordered system of our 
knowledge and experience. 

I believe most people with any historical sense feel as I do on this subject, 
and the better the portrait, as a rendering of individual features and character, 
the more urgent is the demand to give it a definite place in our knowledge 
of the past. The task of identifying some of these unknown portraits which 
Johnson has left us therefore seems to me worth attempting, in spite of the many 
difficulties one has to overcome before it can be done. 

One of the chief difficulties is due to what may be called the personal 
equation in the art of the portrait-painter. Every artist possesses certain habits 
of seeing and painting, so that portraits of the same person painted by different 
artists differ among themselves to a quite alarming extent. The most careful 
observer is often doubtful as to the identity of the sitter, even when the ex- 
ternal evidence seems to leave no room for doubt, while the similarities of 
handling and treatment generally enable the properly qualified student I am 
not referring to the so-called ' experts ' of the law-courts to single out correctly 
each artist's work. In the case I have alluded to above, it is easier to be sure 
that one is dealing with a painting by Johnson and another by Van Dyck than 
that they both represent the same person. One could never have identified 
the sitter in the Johnson simply on the strength of the portrait's similarity to 
the Van Dyck, nor the Van Dyck on the evidence of the Johnson. It is only in 




(^National Gallery of Ireland, No. 584, catalogued <is ' Portrait of a Man") 


cases where the external evidence settles the question of the sitter's identity 
that one can realize how very much even great artists differ in their repre- 
sentations of the same object. So that where all external evidence is missing 
as to the identity of the sitter, and one is forced to fall back upon a com- 
parison of Johnson's likenesses with those known ones of Van Dyck, Mytens, 
and his other contemporaries, it is necessary to be very cautious in coming to 
any positive conclusions. 

Fortunately, in the case of the first portrait I have now to deal with, we are 
not forced to rely upon such unsatisfactory evidence. This is a ' Portrait of a 
Man ', now in the National Gallery of Ireland (No. 584). It was bought in 1907 
from Mr. A. H. Buttery, who had bought it at auction, and had therefore no record 
with it of its earlier history. Sir Walter Armstrong, who was director of the 
Gallery at that time, was evidently attracted by the picture as a fine piece of 
painting by an English artist. The price paid for it, about a hundred pounds, 
seems ridiculously small when one compares it with the ^13,500 paid about the 
same time by another gallery for the two Cattaneo portraits by Van Dyck. 
The Irish people have indeed good reason to congratulate themselves on 
the acumen and good judgement of the director of their national gallery at 
that time. 

The person represented in this portrait is a man of aristocratic bearing, 
evidently in the prime of life. His hair is black, he has a fresh-coloured com- 
plexion, and a brown beard and moustache. A black cloak is thrown round his 
shoulders. The painting is smooth, very delicate, and the paint, though liquid, 
is not thin. There are some beautiful grey tints on the forehead, and on the 
upper parts of the cheeks and round the eyes. Were the picture not signed 
one could be certain that it was by Cornelius Johnson, and it is a particularly 
fine specimen of his handiwork. Though the catalogue states that it was 
' Painted about 1625', the signature 'C. J. fecit. 1628' leaves no doubt as to the 
exact date of the picture. 

The unconventionality and haughty neglige of the dress, as well as the 
aristocratic bearing and appearance of the sitter, persuaded me that the portrait 
was that of an important person, probably a nobleman. I thought at first that 
by going completely through the known portraits of the English nobility of the 
time I should have no difficulty in identifying him. But I was too sanguine. 
After wasting several days I felt I had better follow up the clue provided by the 
arms on the ring which is attached to the sitter's band-strings. It would have 
been wiser to have followed up this clue first, but I thought that the Museum 
authorities would surely have examined this clue, and as no name had been 
given to the portrait I assumed that it had yielded no result ; besides I did not 
feel at all sure that the arms on the ring would be those of the sitter it might 
well be, I thought, that the ring was simply worn as a memento of some friend, 


and that the arms would be those of the friend. However, as soon as I could 
get a photographic enlargement of the ring (see Plate n (a)) I showed it to my 
friend, Mr. Van der Put, who recognized the arms at once as those of the 
Digby family. Reference to James Yorke's Union of Honour (1641) proved that 
Mr. Van der Put was right. The arms, ' Azure, a flower de luce argent, with 
a Mullet for a difference ', are there given as those of ' Sir John Digby Knight, 
(third and youngest sonne of Sir George Digby Knight, of Coleshull in the 
County of Warwicke, by Abigail his wife, daughter of Sir Anthony Hevningham 
of Keteringham in Norfolke Knight) hee was first created Baron Digby of Sher- 
borne, in the County of Dorset ; the 25. of November 1618. and afterward by 
favour of King James, he was created Earle of Bristoll the 15. of September, 
1622. Hee was also Vicechamberlaine to his Majesty, and one of his Majesties 
most honourable Privie-Councell, and was five times imployed upon severall 
Embassages unto forraigne Princes. He married Beatrice, daughter of Charles 
Walcot of Walcot, in the County of Salop, Esquire, widow of Sir John Dive of 
Bromham, in the County of Bedford, by whom he had issue Mary their eldest 
daughter, married to the eldest son of the Viscount Chicester of Ireland, George 
Lord Digby, borne at Madril in Spaine, and hath married Anne, daughter to the 
Earle of Bedford : Abigail married to .... Freake : John unmarried.' 

That the arms are those of the original of the portrait, and not of a friend, 
as I had at first supposed, is proved by comparing the portrait with the engraving, 
perhaps by R. Elstrack, which is here reproduced (Plate n (b)). There is no date 
nor painter's name on the engraving, but the inscription shows that it was pro- 
bably published about 1623, and certainly before the death of James in 1625. It 
therefore represents the Earl a few years younger (probably five) than Johnson's 
portrait, but the likeness is unmistakable. 

This engraving I think settles the matter. The portrait of an unknown man 
in the National Gallery of Ireland we may safely assume is a portrait of John 
Digby, first Earl of Bristol, painted in 1628, when he was forty-two years of age. 
Any lingering doubts we may have on the subject seem to be dispelled by the 
following entry in Vertue's MSS. (B.M. Add. 23071, f. 45 (p. 74)), which my wife 
has recently drawn my attention to : ' John Ld. Digby Earl of Bristol, these 
Armes on a Seal ring hanging to his band string, a head in an Oval, well 
preserv'd. C. J. fecit. 1628. Earl of Oxford.' A rough sketch of the arms, 
a fleur-de-lys with a mullet, accompanies these words, and the signature, with 
the characteristic flourish around the date, is carefully copied and agrees with 
that on the Dublin portrait. Vertue's note was written between 1732 and 1736, 
and it leads one to suppose that Vertue saw this picture at that time in the 
house of his friend and patron, Edward Harley, second Earl of Oxford and 
Mortimer. Perhaps further research may throw light on the history of the 
picture between that date and the year 1905, when it appeared at Christie's. 



.Barm ct jSmlxirnttytcc Chambfrlainc to .- 
ivii one ff we J^ords of his Maiffnfs moft. Hm 
prtrr Ct>un/fll .aiia'Eml'iilsaJer efltnutaSury to 
inuL^lijlrntJrhilta tkt Jourth kiruj M Z 




(From Print in the Print Room, British Miistuni) 


















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There are few other portraits known of John Digby, though portraits of 
his son, George Digby, the second Earl, are numerous. In the National Por- 
trait Exhibition of 1866, what purported to be a portrait of the first Earl, by 
Cornelius Johnson, was exhibited (No. 539) by Mr. G. Digby Wingfield Digby 
of Sherborne Castle. This picture is included by Mr. C. H. Collins Baker in 
his list of Johnson's works (Lely and the Stuart Portrait Painters, vol. ii, p. 113), 
and he describes it as a signed and dated picture, the date being 1628. I have 
not been able to see this picture, but the photograph taken at the time of the 
exhibition proves that either Mr. Baker's date is wrong or else that the portrait 
is incorrectly named. The photograph shows a young man of under twenty, 
and John Digby was born in 1586. It may, however, represent George Digby, 
the second Earl, who was born in 1612. If Mr. Baker's information is correct, 
Johnson then painted the son at the same time that he painted the father, 
and the portrait exhibited in 1866 may perhaps represent the second Earl of 
Bristol at the age of sixteen. 

In the Prado Gallery at Madrid there is a double portrait by Van Dyck 
(Plate in), which is catalogued as 'Van Dyck and the Earl of Bristol'. Smith, 
in his Catalogue raisonne' of Flemish Painters, was the first, so far as I am aware, 
to throw doubts on the official description. In his list of Van Dyck's works 
he boldly describes this picture as ' Portraits of the Artist and Sir Endymion 
Porter ' (No. 745). M. Guiffrey followed Smith when he published this picture 
in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts for 1893, and as the frontispiece to his big book 
on Van Dyck. The reasons he gives for this are curious. ' C'est a tort ', he 
writes, ' que le catalogue du musde de Madrid donne au gros personnage qui 
accompagne Antoine sur ce tableau le nom de George Digby, comte de Bristol. 
Smith ne s'y est pas tromp6, et la comparaison d'un portrait d'Endymion Porter, 
peint par Dobson et grave par W. Faithorne, avec la toile de Madrid, leve toute 
incertitude. Au surplus, le comte de Bristol n'est pas un etre imaginaire. II 
revit sur d'autres toiles de Van Dyck. Un grand tableau de la collection du 
Comte Spencer, ^ Althorp, rdunit les figures en pied du comte de Bristol et de 
William, premier due de Bedford ' (pp. 174-5). It is almost unnecessary for me 
to point out to the members of the Walpole Society that Lord Spencer's fine 
Van Dyck contains the portrait of George Digby, the second Earl of Bristol, 
and that comparison of this portrait with that at Madrid simply proves that 
the latter portrait cannot represent the second Earl. It may, therefore, very 
well represent the first Earl, which is doubtless what the official description 
was meant to convey. But the similarity between the Madrid portrait and the 
Dobson portrait engraved by Faithorne is a more serious objection. This 
picture is now in the National Gallery (No. 1249), and it is catalogued as a por- 
trait of Endymion Porter (Plate iv (a)). 

The sketch by Van Dyck of Endymion Porter, now in the British Museum 


(reproduced Plate iv ()), supports this description. But it is evident from Jean 
Varin's medallion portrait of Porter, made in 1635, that Porter resembled the 
Earl of Bristol in appearance, so that the superficial resemblance between 
Dobson's portrait in the National Gallery and Van Dyck's portrait in Madrid 
cannot be taken to prove that the latter represents Endymion Porter. Careful 
comparison between Van Dyck's sketch and Dobson's portrait of Porter with the 
head at Madrid reveals so many small differences in the features that it seems 
rather over-bold to reject too confidently the traditional name of the Earl of 

As to whether the Madrid portrait represents John Digby or Endymion 
Porter there is no one whose views will deservedly carry so much weight as 
those of Mr. Lionel Cust, and he rejects unhesitatingly M. Guiffrey's proposed 
identification. In his exhaustive study of Van Dyck's life and works (published 
in 1900), he says : ' Endymion Porter has usually been identified as the com- 
panion of Van Dyck in the well-known double portrait in the Prado Gallery at 
Madrid. It is difficult to recognize in the stout and rubicund personage here 
represented the subject of the portraits by Van Dyck and Dobson. It would 
seem more probable that the portrait is that of another friend and patron of 
Van Dyck, John Digby, first Earl of Bristol, who had been ambassador to the 
Court of Spain ' (p. 133). And in Mr. Gust's smaller but carefully-revised Van 
Dyck, published in 1906, the Prado portrait is catalogued as ' Sir Anthony Van 
Dyck and John Digby, first Earl of Bristol. Double portrait, half-length figures, 
about 1640'. The most recent edition of the Prado official catalogue also 
upholds the traditional description of the portraits. 

If the date Mr. Cust suggests for this picture be correct Van Dyck's por- 
trait was painted about twelve years later than Johnson's. The passage of years, 
and the easy and luxurious life which the Earl had led after his breach with 
the Court, have coarsened and fattened his once fine features, yet the two 
portraits seem to be of the same man. If they are, they supplement one another. 
They illustrate admirably the superb character sketch which Clarendon has 
given us, and Clarendon's stately prose gives an added value and impressiveness 
to these two fine paintings. 

Clarendon's ' character ' of Bristol is given in the sixth book of his History 
of the Rebellion, &c. 'The earl of Bristol', he wrote, 'was a man of a grave 
aspect, of a presence that drew respect, and of long experience in affairs of 
great importance. He had been, by the extraordinary favour of king James 
to his person (for he was a very handsome man) and his parts, which were 
naturally great, and had been improved by a good education at home and abroad, 
sent ambassador into Spain, before he was thirty years of age ; and afterwards 
in several other embassies ; and at last, again into Spain ; where he treated and 
concluded the marriage between the prince of Wales and that infanta ; which 




(Na/iiial Gull fry, No. 1249^ 


(Part of a drawing by Van Dyck,in the Print Room. British Museum 


was afterwards dissolved. He was by king James made of the privy-council, 
vice-chamberlain of the household, an earl, and a gentleman of the bedchamber 
to the prince, and was then crushed by the power of the duke of Buckingham, 
and the prejudice the prince himself had contracted against him, during his 
highness's being in Spain ; upon which he was imprisoned upon his return ; and 
after the duke's death, the king retained so strict a memory of all his friend- 
ships and displeasures, that the earl of Bristol could never recover any 
admission to the court ; but lived in the country, in ease, and plenty in his 
fortune, and in great reputation with all who had not an implicit reverence for 
the court ; and before, and in the beginning of the parliament, appeared in the 
head of all the discontented party ; but quickly left them, when they entered 
upon their unwarrantable violences, and grew so much into their disfavour, that 
after the king was gone to York, upon some expressions he used in the house 
of peers in debate, they committed him to the Tower ; from whence being 
released, in two or three days, he made haste to York to the king ; who had 
before restored him to his place in the council and the bedchamber. He was 
with him at Edge-hill, and came with him from thence to Oxford ; and, at the 
end of the war, went into France ; where he died ; that party having so great 
an animosity against him, that they would not suffer him to live in England, nor 
to compound for his estate, as they suffered others to do, who had done 
them more hurt. Though he was a man of great parts, and a wise man, yet 
he had been for the most part single, and by himself, in business ; which he 
managed with good sufficiency ; and had lived little in consort, so that in 
council he was passionate, and supercilious, and did not bear contradiction 
without much passion, and was too voluminous in discourse; so that he was 
not considered there with much respect; to the lessening whereof no man 
contributed more than his son, the lord Digby ; who shortly after came to 
sit there as secretary of state, and had not that reverence for his father's 
wisdom, which his great experience deserved, though he failed not in his piety 
towards him.' 

The second anonymous portrait, with which I now propose to deal, was 
bought about 1896 from the late Martin Colnaghi by Messrs. Wallis and Son 
(the French Gallery), who have kindly supplied me with the photograph from 
which the accompanying reproduction (Plate v) has been made. I have no 
further clue to its provenance. It was called simply 'An Unknown Man', and 
I am informed that it has been sold abroad. So far as I know the picture is 
not signed nor dated, but I have no doubt that it is by Cornelius Johnson, and 
the costume seems to suggest that it was painted about 1640. The picture 
unfortunately contains no definite clue, like that of the seal ring in Lord Bristol's 
vi. c 


portrait, to the identity of the sitter. In the absence of such a clue one has 
perforce to fall back upon comparisons with the features of other known por- 
traits, an expedient full of the dangers and difficulties to which I have alluded 
above. But the portrait is such a fine one, and the person represented so 
obviously a man of high rank and personal importance, that I consider one is 
justified in running some risks in the attempt to establish his identity. 

The features in Simon de Passe's engraving, here reproduced in reverse 
(Plate vi) to facilitate comparison, seem to me so remarkably similar to those 
of Johnson's ' Unknown Man ' that I venture to suggest that Johnson's sitter 
may perhaps prove to be no less exalted a person than Philip Herbert, Earl 
of Montgomery and fourth Earl of Pembroke. De Passe's engraving shows 
Philip Herbert as a comparatively young man. It must have been done before 
1623, for the engraver left England in that year. As de Passe engraved a por- 
trait of Philip's elder brother, William, third Earl of Pembroke, in 1617, it is 
possible that this engraving was made about the same time ; and as William's 
portrait was engraved after a painting by Van Somer, perhaps this artist also 
painted the original of Philip's engraving. If 1617 be the correct date of 
de Passe's plate, Philip Herbert was then thirty -three years of age. And if 
Johnson's portrait was painted about 1640 (it may possibly have been a year 
or two later), the sitter, provided we are correct in supposing that he was Philip 
Herbert, would have been at least fifty-six years of age. This calculation seems 
to agree with the apparent age of Johnson's sitter, and the difference of 
twenty-three years is sufficient to account for the slight differences in the two 

Another engraving which will be useful for comparison is the portrait of 
the fourth Earl of Pembroke, engraved by Wenceslaus Hollar in 1642, from a 
painting by Van Dyck. This is a small head and shoulders, in an oval frame. 
The original I believe is at Tythrop House. This engraving supports the 
suggestion that Johnson's portrait represents the same sitter. 

The best known portrait of Philip Herbert is that in the great ' Herbert 
Family ' piece by Van Dyck at Wilton House. According to Captain Nevile 
Wilkinson (Wilton House Pictures, 1907) this picture must have been completed 
in 1633, but he thinks the Earl's portrait may have been painted a year or two 
earlier. Allowing for the difference in date between this portrait and that of the 
Johnson we are considering, and the differences between Van Dyck's and 
Johnson's ways of seeing and pictorial aims, it seems to me possible, though by 
no means certain, that the two portraits may represent the same person. 

There is also at Wilton House a whole-length portrait of the Earl, wearing 
a dark cloak with the star of the Garter, holding a stick in his left hand, his right 
foot on a step (No. 287), by Van Dyck, and Captain Wilkinson gives the 
following list of other portraits which may be useful for purposes of comparison: 



From a photograph kindly supplied by Messrs. Wallis and Son 


(Print Room, British Museum) 


1. Whole length, about 40 years of age, by Van Dyck. Smith's Cat. Rats., 519. Engraved 

by Hollar, and in Lodge's Memoirs. 

2. A three-quarter length, by Van Dyck. Exhd. Brit. Inst., 1851, R. A. 1881, and G. G. 

1887, No. 4. Cust, 149. Belonging to the Earl of Carnarvon. 

3. A full length, by Van Dyck. Exhd. Brit. Inst. 1860. Cust, 151. Belonging to the 

Earl of Clarendon. 

4. Full-length miniature, 20 in. x 15. Exhd. N.P. E. 1866, No. 589. (Similar to No. i, 

above.) Belonging to the Earl of Yarborough. 

5. A three-quarter length, in buff coat, ascribed to Van Dyck. Belonging to the Marquess 

of Bath, Longleat. 

6. A three-quarter length by Van Dyck. Exhd. R. A. 1883. Belonging to O. J. Wyke- 

ham, Esq. (Said to be the original of Hollar's engraving, referred to above.) 

7. A full length, ascribed to Van Dyck. Repetition of the Wilton portrait. Belonging to 

Lord Mowbray and Stourton, Allerton Park. 

8. A three-quarter length, seated, ascribed to Van Dyck. Exhd. Manchester, 1857, No. 99. 

Belonging to the Duke of Portland. Welbeck Abbey catalogue, No. 101. (It is now, 
I believe, attributed to Mytens.) 

9. Whole length, with rod of office of Lord Chamberlain ; view of Old Wilton House in 

background. By Mytens. Strawberry Hill sale, 1842, Iot88(i7th day). Sold for 

32 guineas. 
10. A Portrait bought by the Rev. J. M. Trehearne as a Van Dyck, at Lord Northwick's 

sale in 1859. 
n. Miniature, by S. Cooper. Exhd. S. K. 1862, No. 1911, by S. Addington, Esq. 

Lady Anne Clifford, Countess of Dorset, Pembroke, and Montgomery, has 
given the following account of the life and character of her second husband 
(Harley MS. 6177) : 'This second lord of mine was born a second son the 10 
of October ' (Complete Peerage says October 16) 'in 1584, in his father, Henry 
Herbert, Earl of Pembroke's house at Wilton in Wiltshire, which was once 
a nunnery. His mother was Mary Sidney, only daughter to Sir Henry Sidney 
and only sister to the renowned Sir Philip Sidney. He was no scholar at all to 
speak of, for he was not past three or four months at the University of Oxford, 
being taken away from thence by his friends presently after his father's death in 
Queen Elizabeth's time, at the latter end of her reign, to follow the court, as 
judging himself fitt for that kind of life, when he was not passing fifteen or sixteen 
years old ; yet he was of a very quick apprehension, a sharp understanding, 
very crafty withal, and of a discerning spirit, but extreamly cholerick by nature, 
which was increased the more by the office of Lord Chamberlain to the King 
which he held many years. ... He was one of the greatest noblemen of 
his time in England in all respects, and was generally throughout the realm 
very well beloved.' (Quoted from the Roxburghe Club's edition of Lives of Lady 
Anne Clifford \ &c., edited by J. P. Gilson, 1916, p. 55.) 

A lampoon written in connexion with his visit to Oxford in 1648, quoted by 
Captain Wilkinson from the Tanner MSS., gives an enemy's opinion of his 
features : 

c 2 


His nose was notch'd like country garden pales, 
His brow and chin more mountainous than Wales. 
And who could better fill Apollo's place, 
Than he that bears Parnassus in his face ? 

Clarendon tells that when James I came to England the Earl of Montgomery, 
as he then was, ' had the good fortune, by the comeliness of his person, his skill, 
and indefatigable industry in hunting, to be the first who drew the king's eyes 
towards him with affection'. He bore the King's favour with more moderation 
than others who succeeded, and he was liberally supplied with funds by his 
elder brother, the third Earl of Pembroke. ' He pretended to no other qualifi- 
cations, than to understand horses and dogs very well, which his master loved 
him the better for, (being, at his first coming into England, very jealous of those 
who had the reputation of great parts,), and to be believed honest and generous, 
which made him many friends, and left him no enemies.' 

Clarendon's account of him in later life is, however, much less favourable : 
' Whilst there was tranquillity in the kingdom, he enjoyed his full share in pomp 
and greatness ; the largeness and plentifulness of his fortune being attended 
with reverence and dependence from the people where his estate and interest 
lay, and where indeed he was a great man ; getting an affection and esteem 
from persons who had no dependence upon him, by his magnificent living, and 
discoursing highly of justice, and of the protestant religion ; inveighing bitterly 
against popery, and telling what he used to say to the king; and speaking 
frankly of the oversights of the court, that he might not be thought a slave to it. 
He had been bred from his cradle in the court; and had that perfection of 
a courtier, that as he was not wary enough in offending men, so he was forward 
in acknowledging it, even to his inferiors, and to impute it to his passion, and 
ask pardon for it ; which made him be thought a well-natured man. . . There 
were very few great persons in authority, who were not frequently offended by 
him, by sharp and scandalous discourses, and invectives against them, behind 
their backs ; . . and his infirmities were so generally known, that men did not 
think they could suffer in their reputations by any thing he said ; whilst the king 
retained only some kindness for him, without any value and esteem of him. 
But, from the beginning of the parliament, when he saw and heard a people 
stout enough to inveigh against the king's authority, and, to fall upon those 
persons whom he had always more feared than loved; and found that there 
were two armies in the kingdom, and that the king had not the entire com- 
mand of either of them ; when the decrees of the star-chamber, and the orders 
and acts of the council, in all which he had concurred, (as his concurrence was 
all that he had contributed towards any counsel,) were called in question, and 
like to be made penal to those who would not redeem their past errors by 
future service ; his fear, which was the passion always predominant in him above 


all his choler and rage, prevailed so far over him, that he gave himself into 
the hands of the lord Say, to dispose of him as he thought fit, till the king took 
the white staff from him, and gave it to the earl of Essex. . . . From this time, 
he took himself to be absolved from all obligations and dependence upon the 

If Johnson's portrait does indeed represent the fourth Earl of Pembroke, 
as seems possible, the absence of the white wand of office from the portrait, 
and the plainness of the costume, suggest that it was perhaps painted after 
July, 1641, when his quarrel with Lord Maltravers had led to his committal to 
the Tower and the loss of his office as Lord Chamberlain. The absence of 
the Orders of the Bath and Garter may also be taken as an indication of Lord 
Pembroke's break with the Court and his siding with the Puritans. It would 
belong therefore to a different time from those days of tranquillity in which 
the Earl ' enjoyed his full share in pomp and greatness ', so skilfully suggested 
in Van Dyck's great family group at Wilton House. In Johnson's portrait we 
seem to see the ally and friend of Lord Say, the fisher in troubled waters ; and 
the sitter's gaze seems to reflect some anxiety and fear as to what the immediate 
future will bring forth. 








IN the second Annual of the Walpolc Society an account was given of 
a painter, Hans Eworthe, or Eeuwouts, and it was stated that the identification 
of this painter was due to an entry in the inventory of pictures belonging to 
John, Lord Lumley, in 1590, the manuscript of which is in the possession of 
the present Earl of Scarbrough. This manuscript is of the highest importance 
in the history of the Fine Arts in England, and was first printed in the Appendix 
to the Records of the Lumleys of Lumley Castle, published in 1904 by Miss Edith 
Milner and Miss Edith Benham. The complete manuscript contains matters 
of genealogical and heraldic interest, and was lent to the recent Exhibition of 
Heraldic Art at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1916, and is described in 
the Catalogue of that exhibition. In addition to these details and to the 
inventory of pictures the manuscript contains an account of sculptures at 
Lumley Castle, some of which still remain in the Castle to this day. After 
describing the heraldic sculptures on the outer walls, the inventory states : 

In the midst of the Court standeth a Condeth (conduit) of 17 foote high with two bolls 
of whyte marble, standing upon foure great pillers of whyte marble contayning my Lord's 
Armes and my Ladie Elsabeths, his second wife. 

This conduit, which no longer exists, is shown in a drawing (Plate vin a). 
Within the Castle the inventory states : 

In the uppermost front of the Hall, there standeth a great statuarie on horseback, as 
bigg as the life, w^in an arch of stone, in memorie of King Edward the 3 in whose time 
the most of this Castle was built. W tb in this arche also standeth sixe small pictures, in whyte 
marble in memorie of his six sonnes, viz. : Edward Prince of Wales, Willm of Hatfield 
who died yong, Lyonell Duke of Clarence, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, Edmond of 
Langley, Duke of Yorke, Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Glocester. 

Upon the same front there are also foure livelie statues all wrought in white marble in 
memorie of K Henry the 8, King Edward 6, Quene Marie and Q. Elizabeth, in whose 
raignes his Lo p lived. 

These sculptures are shown in a drawing (Plate vn). The equestrian 
statue of King Edward III, carved in wood, still remains in the Great Hall at 
Lumley Castle, as do also the ' foure livelie statues ', being marble busts of the 
highest interest, the sculptor of which should rank with the great artists of his 


time. The six small busts have disappeared, but the two reliefs of Plato and 
Aristotle, figured in the drawing, are let into the wall of the courtyard. Another 
drawing (Plate vin b) gives a view of the screen in the Great Hall : 

In the nether end of the hall against the skreene a Rich lavatory of touch and whyte 
marble contayning in height 20 foote. 

Of this lavatory the column and base of touch have disappeared, but the 
Pelican in its Piety is still preserved at Lumley Castle, and fragments of the 
basin have been discovered and recently pieced together. On the screen were 
some of a series of ' Thirtene Emperors heades of mould worke garnishing the 
hall ' and ' Sixe rare heades of beasts ', being the head of an Irish elk (Cervus 
megaceros), ' An heade of an Eliphant ', ' The head of a Strepsiceros ' (antelope}, 
' A Staggs head carrying nyne in the topp ', ' Head of a Bezar ' (Bezoar goat or 
gazelle), 'A Hede of a beast called Gems' (chamois), and 'The clawe of 
a griphyn, verie wonderfull '. Four of these heads are shown in the drawing, 
but all with the emperors' heads have disappeared. Then follows a Latin 
poem, painted on panel, entitled ' Theatrum Mundus, Spectator Deus ' ; this 
painted poem still survives, and is worth transcribing as a piece of verbal 

Mundus abit, res nota quidem, res usque notanda 

nota tibi mundi sit nota mundus abit 
Mundus abit, non mundus, id est, haec machina mudi, 

dico, sed mundi gloria mudus abit 
Mundus abit, cito nome abit, cum nomine mundu 

sed citius mundi nomine, mudus abit 
Mundus abit, tria sut, fuit, est, erit, haec tria mudum 

mota movent, clamat haec tria, mundus abit 
Mundus abit fugiens ut tempus, ut amnis ut aura, 

ut mundus, satis est dicere, mundus abit 
Mundus abit, constans nihil est sed constat abire 

in mundo constat nil nisi mundus abit 
Mundus abit, nihil in nihilo, sed tamen eius abire 

non abit : error abi, quo duce mudus abit 
Mundus abit nil quod quaeras satis unde queraris, 

mundus abit, quod habet respue, mundus abit. 
Mundus abit, fortis su, non ero, sum spetiosus, 

non ero, su dives, non ero, mudus abit 
Mundus abit, sequitur mors vita, stricta solutam, 

Longa brevem laetum nubila, mundus abit 
Mundus abit mundus qui verbo fallit in omni, 

nescit in hoc uno fallere, mundus abit. 
Mundus abit, non christus abit, cole non abeuntem, 

dices, non abeo me sine mundus abit. 
Mundus abit, quoties iterabo, cesset abire 

mundus, cessabo dicere, mundus abit. 

















































































S Q 























Esse, Fuisse, Fore, Tria Florida, sunt sine Flore. 

nam simul omne Peril quod Fuit est t erit 
Quod Fuit, Est et Erit transit spatio brevis horae 

ergo parum prodest, Esse, Fuisse, Fore. 

These verses were continued on another panel, which no longer exists. 

Munde, vale, tibi ve fugiens me, du sequerer te 
tu sequeris modo me, munde vale tibi ve. 

Pennatis humeris, volat irrevocabile tempus 
Vincit ovans laurus, falx peracuta secat 

Erigam, an diripiam, temporis statuam : tempus omniu edax rerum, maioru nomina, 
vitam, memoriam exstinxit, marmorea, eburnea, argentea, aurea monumenta devoravit in 
ipsum tempus cu tempora sequierint, et istam longa annorum serie, deductam propaginem 
obumbrare minitentur : intemperans esse possim in temporis spoliis, si triumphalis statua 
consecretur: Sed omnia tempus habet, ut nee equu sit sua invidere tempori trophea, et 
gratiae agendae sint, tanquam comuni parent!, veritatis, virtutis, vitae, nobilitatis nostrae. 
Tempore nascuntur caesaru stemata, creverunt imperiorum sceptra, honoris aura placet, 
captatur, suspicitur, concidit. 

Tempora labuntur fluimus ruimusque gradatus 
Dulcia virtutis praemia sola manent. 

The manuscript then proceeds to the genealogical and heraldic history of 
the Lumley family, after which comes the famous inventory taken by Mr. John 
Lampton, 'Stewarde of Howseholde to John Lord Lumley'. The inventory 
starts off with nineteen pages of drawings representing marble furniture. 
These were probably Italian work, and at Nonsuch Palace, as the series 
contains drawings of the tombs, designed in 1597 by Lord Lumley, to be 
erected to the memory of himself and his two wives, Jane FitzAlan and 
Elizabeth D'Arcy, in the church at Cheam in Surrey (Plates xiv and xv), where 
they were all eventually buried. 1 These drawings of fountains, tables, and 
screens (Plates ix, x, xi, xn, xm) are of considerable artistic interest; unfor- 
tunately nothing has been preserved. Possibly the fountains were destroyed 
when Nonsuch Palace fell into the rapacious hands of Barbara Villiers, Duchess 
of Cleveland, who pulled down the palace and turned all she could into cash. 
After these drawings follows the inventory of the pictures, which is of excep- 
tional interest, as revealing not only the immense wealth of pictures owned 
by John, Lord Lumley, in his various residences at Lumley Castle, his house 
on Tower Hill, and possibly also at Nonsuch Palace but also as giving the clue 
to certain painters of the period. 

The inventory of the Library has not been preserved, and possibly the 

1 The tomb of John, Lord Lumley, was engraved for Sandford's Genealogical History of the 
Kings of England, chap. V. 

VI. D 


books were disposed of by Lord Lumley himself, as it is stated in the 
manuscript : 

The Library Registred in a boke wryten by Alcocke, my L: of Chechester his L: 
servant, A" 1596 with all the rest of my boks myselfe have dysparsed sundery ways. 

Some of the books and manuscripts came into the possession of Henry, 
Prince of Wales, and a few are now in the British Museum. Lord Lumley 
had in 1587 presented a number of books to the University of Cambridge. In 
1601 Lord Lumley surrendered the palace at Nonsuch to Queen Elizabeth in 
discharge of a debt to Her Majesty, though he appears to have remained there 
as a tenant, as he died there on April ir, 1609, and was buried with his first 
wife and their children at Cheam. A further inventory taken after his death 
shows that the greater part of the artistic treasures mentioned in the inventory 
of 1590 was in 1609 at Lumley Castle. A summary of this second inventory 
was given in Surtees's History of Durham, vol. ii, p. 161 ; but the whole 
of this inventory has been transcribed by Miss Mary Hervey, and is appended 
here with Miss Hervey's own remarks on the formation and dispersal of the 
great Lumley collection. 

By his first wife, Jane, daughter and co-heiress, through the death of her 
brother, Lord Maltravers, to Henry FitzAlan, last Earl of Arundel of that line, 
Lord Lumley inherited part of the fortune and treasures of the great house of 
FitzAlan, the other portion descending to Lady Lumley 's sister, Mary, Duchess 
of Norfolk, wife of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, who was attainted and 
beheaded in 1572 for complicity with the Queen of Scots against Queen 
Elizabeth. The Duchess of Norfolk had died in 1557, leaving one son, Philip, 
Earl of Arundel, who was father of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel and 
Surrey, the famous art collector and connoisseur. At the time of Lord 
Lumley's death in 1609, with no surviving issue by either of his wives, the 
heir to the possessions of the FitzAlan family was Thomas, Earl of Arundel. 
Certain family portraits and other works of art must have passed immediately 
into the Earl of Arundel's possession, such as the portrait of Christina, Duchess 
of Milan, by Holbein, and Holbein's famous book of portrait drawings. Some 
portion was probably inherited by Elizabeth D'Arcy, Lady Lumley, with the 
London house on Tower Hill. Nonsuch Palace with its contents was already 
the property of the Crown. A considerable portion of the collection of pictures, 
tapestries, &c., remained at Lumley Castle, and passed with that property to 
the Earls of Scarbrough, with whom they remained for some generations. Un- 
fortunately, during the eighteenth century the financial affairs of the Earls of 
Scarbrough became sadly involved. After the death of Richard, fourth Earl 
of Scarbrough, in 1782, a sale of household furniture, &c., was conducted by 
Mr. Christie at Lumley Castle on Monday, August 8, 1785, and the three 


following days, when the collection of works of art was dispersed, though a certain 
number appears to have been bought in. A further sale took place after the 
death of George Augusta, fifth Earl of Scarbrough, in 1807, both at Sandbeck 
Park and at Lumley Castle. A number of family portraits and a few sculptures 
were saved, and remain to this day at Lumley Castle ; but the former richness 
of the collection is now only a memory preserved in the inventory of 1590. 

Apart from the interesting questions of iconography arising from the 
Lumley inventory, there are entries of special interest with reference to the 
painters working in England during the sixteenth century. 

The pictures and drawings ascribed to Hans Holbein have been noted and 
described elsewhere by Dr. Paul Ganz and Mr. Arthur Chamberlain. They 
need no further comment here, except to note that the portrait of Sir Thomas 
More, which had been identified with that formerly belonging to Mr. Huth 
and now in the collection of Mr. Frick in America, may perhaps be the fine 
version of this portrait in the collection of the Marquess of Lothian at New- 
battle Abbey. The ascription of certain paintings in the Lumley inventory to 
Haunce Eworthe has led to the identification of this painter, as set forth in the 
Second Annual of the Walpole Society. The paintings ascribed to Garlicke, 
otherwise Gerlach Fliccus, have been ably dealt with by Miss Mary Hervey in 
the Burlington Magazine, vol. xvii, pp. 71, 146. 

A painter Hnbberi still remains to be identified. 

The famous paynter Steven seems to be identical with Richard Stevens, 
a Flemish painter in London, who was sta'tuary and medallist as well as 
painter. The portrait of Lord Lumley by this painter, which is still preserved 
at Lumley Castle, is a good example of Tudor painting without any special 
mark of distinction. 

Seigar, to whom various portraits are attributed, may be identified safely 
with either Sir William Segar, Garter King-at-arms, or his brother, Francis 
Segar. ' William and Francis Segar, brethren ' are among the painters noted 
by Sir Francis Meres in his Palladis Tamia in 1598. A comparison with the 
plates engraved for the numerous works of Sir William Segar makes it almost 
certain that the series of full-length portraits of John, Lord Lumley, and his 
ancestors, which still hang in the Great Hall at Lumley Castle, was painted 
by Sir William Segar or his brother. 

Other painters are mentioned in the inventory, but not as working in 
England, such as Albrecht Durer, Frans Floris, Antonio Moro, Jan Schorel of 
Utrecht. The entries ' Of Lucretia drawne by Cornelius Vandeave of Anwar pe\ 
and 'A large table of the Rape of Helena, drawne by Cleave Haunce of Anwar pe ', 
are valuable in the history of the various artists bearing the name Van Cleef 
in the Netherlands. Jacques Pindar is identical with Jacob De Poindre, 
a painter of repute at Malines; but Vincent of Macklen from the same town 

D 2 


remains to be identified. The picture of Lodovicus Orioustus the Poete done by 
Lucios (or furio), the paytf, also gives a clue which has still to be followed up. 

Inventories of pictures are disappointing, since the details given are seldom 
sufficient to secure identification. The Lumley inventory is unusually rich in 
such details, but yet the bulk of the pictures enumerated, most of which must 
still exist in modern collections, still remains a mine for future discoveries. 
Some descriptive notes in The Literary Cabinet may help to identify certain 
portraits, and the descriptions in the sale catalogues of 1795 and 1807 also 
throw a little light, which may lead to more of the pictures being traced. 


Additions by same hand as MS. are printed within square brackets. 
Additions in a later hand are printed in italics. 


A Certyficate from Mr. John Lampton Stewarde of Howseholde to John 
Lord Lumley, of all his Lo: monumentes of Marbles, Pictures and tables in 
Paynture, with other his Lordshippes howseholde Stuffe and Regester of 
Bookes. Anno 1590. 

A note of Pyctures caryinge 

the fowrme of the whole Statuary. 

These sorted together 

for the memorye 

of y r Lo: house. 

The statuary of Adam and Eve. 

1 The Statuaryes of xvi en Auncestors of yo r Lo: lyneally descending from the Conquest 
unto yo r self. 

1 The Statuary of yo r eldest sonne Charles. 
1 The Statuary of bothe yo r Lo: wives. 
The Statuary of old tyme. 

'The Statuary of Kinge Richard the seconde, delyvering the wryte of Parliament to 
Ralphe the first Barren of Lumley, called by him the eight yeare of his Reigne. 

* The Statuary of King Henry the eight and his father Kinge Henry the seaventh joyned 
together, doone in white and blacke by Haunce Holbyn. 

The Statuary of Kinge Henry the eight alone doone in oyle coloures. 
The Statuary of his sonne King Edward the sixt drawne by 
g The Statuary of the Lord Barley, after King of Scotts. 
The Statuary of Quene Anne Bulleyne. 

The Statuary of the Duches of Myllayne, afterwards Duches of Lorreyn daughter to 
[Christierne] king of Denmarke doone by Haunce Holbyn. 

The Statuary of the Duches of Parma, Regent in Flaunders, Base doughter to the 
Empero r Charles the fiveth. 

The Statuary of King Phillip of Spayne. 

The Statuary of Henry of Burbon King of Navarre and of Fraunce. 

The Statuary of Willm Nassau Prince of Orange, murthered by Balthazar Geraertez, 
a Burgunyan gent. 

The Statuary of the Princes his last wife, daughter to Colligny Admyrall of Fraunce 
and widow of Telligny. 

1 Now at Lumley Castle. * That of the second wife is at Lumley. 

' At Lumley. * Now at Chatsworth. 

' Erased in original MS. 

' Now in the National Gallery, formerly in the Duke of Norfolk's collection. 


The Statuary of the last old Earle of Arundell fitzallen, Lo: Chamberleyne to k: H: 8. 
and K: Edw: 6. and Lo: Steward to Quene Mary and Q. Elizabeth. 

The Statuary of Willm Harbert first Earle of Pembroke, created by King Edward the 
sixt Lo: Steward to Quene Elizabeth. 

1 The Statuary of Thomas first Lo: Darcy of Chiche created by King Edw: 6. Lo: 
Chamberleyne to the said K: Edw: drawn by Garlicke. 2 

The Statuary of the Lo: Charles Howard of Effingham, Lord Admyrall of England. 

The Statuary of Sir Christofer Hatton Knight, as he was being vice-chambereyne to 
Q. Elizabeth, [who afterward was Lo: Chancelo r of Englande.] 

3 The Statuary of the Lorde Darneley [afterwards K: of Scott] and his brother Charles 
Stewarde in one table. 

[The Statuary of Robert Dudley Earle of Leicester.] 
[The Statuary of Edwarde Earle of Oxfourde.] 

4 [The Statuary of yo r Lo p selfe in yo r Parlyament Robes.] 

[The Statuary of Monseur brother to Valois laste Kinge of Fraunce in the robes of y* 

[The Statuarie of Counte de Home ) . r , . 

. Oi . r ~ [ in the Robes ot theire order. 

[ine btatuane ot Lounte de Mounteny ) 

5 [The Statuarie of Robte Earle of Sussex Anno 1593.] 

[The Statuarie of Thomas Lord Broughe in his Robes of the Garter.] 


The Picture of King Richard the Second. 

Of King Henry the fourthe. 

Of King Henry the fiveth. 

Of King Henry the sixt. 

Of King Edward the fourthe. 

Of King Richard the third. 

Of King Henry the seaventh. 

Of Quene Elizabeth his wife. 

Of Prince Arthur their eldest sonne. 

Of King Henry the eight. 
Of King Edw: 6. being Prince. 
7 Of Quene Marye, drawne by Garlicke. 
3 Of Quene Elizabeth as she was comyng first to the Crowne. 

And agayne, as she was the xxxth yeare of her Reigne. 

[Of Stephen Batre Kinge of Powland.] 

[Of Sigismond Kinge of Poland sonne to John Kinge of Swethland.] 

[Of Sigismonde Batre Prince of Transsilvania a 1595.] 

[Of Phillip sonne to the Kynge of Spayne that now is.] 

Of the Duke of Richemond, base sonne to K: H: 8. 

1 This was at Irnham. * Gerlach Fliccus or Flick. 

' Now at Windsor Castle. 

Sold 1785. John Boro de Lumley in robes of state, 1591. Now at Lumley Castle. 
' Sold 1785. Whole-length portrait of Radcliffe, Earl of Sussex, in armour. 10 105. Terry. 
Now in the possession of Mr. Henry Harris, reproduced in Walpole Society's Annual, iii. 

6 Sold 1785. 6 i6s. 6d. 7 Sold 1785. 555. ' Sold 1785. 6 6s. 


Of the Duke of Buckingham. 

Of the first Duke of Northefolke Hawarde. 

Of the seconde Duke of Northfolke. 

Of Thomas the third Duke of Northfolke, doone by Garlicke. 
1 Of Thomas Earle of Surrey. 

Of Thomas his sonne the 4 Duke of Northfolke. 

Of Phillip his sonne afterwards Earle of Arundell. 

Of Charles Brandon the first Duke of Suffolke Lo: great M r . 

Of the Duke of Somerset Seyma r Lo Protecto r to King Edw: 6. 

Of his brother Lord Admirall Seymer. 

Of the last Earle of Arundell Fitzallen, drawne twise by the famous paynter Steven. 

Of his sonne the Lord Mautrevers. 

Of the first Marques of Winchester Pawlet, Lo: Treasorer. 

Of the Lo: Marques of Northampton Parre, Lo: great Chaberleyne. 

Of Thomas Earle of Northumberland, executed at Yorke. 

Of the first Earle of Southampton Writhesley, Lo: Chauncellor. 
* Of the Lo: Robert Dudley, M r of the horse to Quene Elizabeth. 

Of him after he was Earle of Leicester Lo: Steward, twise drawne bye Seigar. 

Of the Earle of Southampton Fitzwillms Lo: Pryvie Scale. 

3 Of the first Earle of Bedfourd Russell Lo: Pryvie Scale. 

4 Of the second Earle of Essex [Robert] Devereux, M r of the horse, doone by Seigar. 
Of the Lo: Clinton, afterwards created Earle of Lincolne, Lo: Admirall. 

Of Ambrose Earle of Warwicke, generall at Newhaven. 

[Of the firste Earle of Shroesburie.] 

Of the Olde Earle of Lyneux. 

[Of Gilbert Earle of Shrewesburye that now is.] 

Of the Pope Julius secundus. 

Of Cardynall Woolsey Lo: Chauncello' 

[Of Anthony Grandville Cardinall and Bishopp of Arras.] 

Of the Cardynall Poole. 

Of the B. of Winchester, Steven Gardyn Lo: Chauncello' 

Of the B. of Rochester Fissher. 
6 Of the old Lo: Henry Morley, A 1523 done in water colo r by Albert Duer. 

Of the Vycount Mountague Browne. 
c Of yo r Lo: doone by Steven. 

Of the first Lorde Sheiffeild, slayne at Norwiche. 

Of Arthure Lo: Gray of Wilton, Lo: deputie of Ireland, doone by Seigar. 

Of the first Lo: Willoughbye [Perigrine] Bartue. 

Of Thomas the first Lo: Crumwell, Lo: pryvie scale, and vice-regent to K: H: 8. 

Of the first Lo: Wentworth, Lo: Chamberleyne to K: Edw: 6. 

Of the first Lo: Riche, Lo: Chauncello' of England. 

Of Thomas the third Lo: Darcy of Chiche, doone by Hubbert 

1 Sold 1785. Portrait of Howard, Earl of Surrey, 1545. 7 175. 6d. ? at Greystoke. Given 
to Mr. Howard by the Earl of Scarbrough. 

1 1587. Sold 1785. 335. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. 

3 Sale 1785. Less half length. John Lord Russell, Earl of Bedford, 1555. 2 55. Perhaps 
now at Woburn Abbey. 

4 Sale 1785. Devereux, Earl of Essex, 1590. 445. 

6 Now in the British Museum. ' Now at Lumley Castle. 


Of the last Lord Braye. 

1 Of the first Lo: Burghley Cicill, Lo: Threasorer. 

2 [Of S r Anthony Browne M r of the horse to K: H: 8. and K: Edward y 9 6.] 

3 Of S r Nichls Carewe M r of the horse to K: H: 8. 

Of old Sir Thomas Lovell Threasorer of howseholde to K: H: 7. 

4 Of Sir Henry Guilfourd Coumptroller to K: H: 8. [drawne by Haunce Holbyn.] 

5 Of Sir Thomas Moore, Lo: Chauncello r , [drawne by Haunce Holbyn.] 
Of old sir Thomas Wyatt. 

Of the yonger sir Thomas Wiat executed. 

Of S r Thomas Hennege, Vice chaberleyne. 

Of Erasmus of Roterdame, "all this eight drawne by Haunce Holbyn. 

Of Sir Willm Winter, doone by Seigar. 

Of sir Frauncis Walsingham Secretary. 
7 Of sir Willm Peter Secretarye. 
s Of his sonne sir John Peter. 

Of sir Willm Drury slaine in fraunce drawne by Seigar. 

Of sir Nichls Bacon Knight Lo: Keper of the great Scale to Q: Elizabeth. 

9 Of Sir James Wilfourd Capten of Haddington. 
Of sir Phillip Sidney, Lo: governo r in Zealand. 

Of sir Frauncis Drake the Great Navigato r (doone by Seigar) [who sayled round about 
the worlde.] 

10 Of Sir John Lutterel, who died of the sweat in K. Edw: 6: tyme. 

[Of Sir John Haukins Treasurer of the Admiraltie drawne by Hubbert.] 

[Of M r Thomas Candishe who sayled round about the worlde.] 

M' ' Churchyards picture. 

An old man fancying a yong woman. 

Of M r Edward Dyer of the Corte, drawne by Hubbert. 

Of M r Edw: Shelley slayne at Mustleborough feilde, drawen by Haunce Eworthe. 

11 Of M r Thomas Wyndeham drowned in [the Sea returneinge from Ginney.] 
[Of Sir Edward Kelley rare for his knowledge in Alcumistrye.] 

Of the Earle of Salisburie, Cecill. 

Of Julius Caesar. 

Of Henry the third Empo r husbande to Mawd the Empresse. 

Of Maximilian the Empo r grandfather to Charles the Vth. 

Of Charles the Vth Empour. 

1 Sold 1785. Cecil Lord Burleigh, Lord High Treasurer. 3 135. 6d. 

2 Sold 1785. Portrait of Sir Anthony Browne, Viscount Montague. 3185. Ditto i us. 6d. 

3 Now in the collection of the Duke of Buccleuch, at Dalkeith. Sold 1785. 10 IDS. 

4 Now at Windsor Castle. 

6 Sold 1785. Portrait of Sir Thomas Moore, Lord Chancellor. 5 155. 6d. Said to be by 
Holbein ; probably the picture in the collection of the Marquess of Lothian at Newbattle Abbey. 

6 These three words erased in original MS. 

7 Sold 1785. Sir William Peter (or Petre), Secretary to Henry 8th, Edward 6th, Queen Mary, 
and Queen Elizabeth. 5 55. Now perhaps at Thorndon. 

8 Sold 1785. Sir John Peter. 3 35. 

9 Either the picture now belonging to Mr. A. W. Hall or that at St. George's Hospital. 

10 Either the portrait by Hans Eworth at Dunster Castle, or that at Badmondsfield. See 
Annual, Walpole Society, vol. ii. 

11 By Hans Eworth, now at Longford Castle. Sold 1785. Mr. Wyndham, 1550. 5 55. See 
Annual, Walpole Society, vol. ii. 


Of Steven [Batere] King of Poland 1583. 

Of the Duke of Savoy Regent in Flaunders doone by Jaques Pindar. 1 
Of the Duke of Parma, Regent in Flaunders. 

8 Of the Duke of Alva, governo' in Flaunders, doone by Anthony Moorey. 
Of the Duke of Askott 1583. 
[Of the Duke of Sert] 

Of the County Egmond executed at Bruxels, drawne by Steven. 
Of the Duke of Burbon, slayne at the sackinge of Rome. 
Of Henry Valoys last of that name, king of Fraunce, murthered. 
Of Henrye Duke of Guyse murthered by the said kinge. 
Of Albertus Cardinall of Austria now governor of the Lowe Countryes. 

3 Of Andrew Dore Prince of Melph. 

[Of Phillip de Roye a councelor to the K. of Spayne.] 

Of Balthazar Geraertez gent, a Burgunyan, who murthered the Prince of Orange. 

4 Of President Viglius, a Great Councello' to Charles the Vth, drawne by Jaques 

Of Haward a Dutch Juello r , drawne for a Maisters prize by his brother Haunce 

Of Sebastian Gabote the great Navigator. 

[Of Ignatius de Loyola first founder of the societie of Jesus.] 

[Of Franciscus Xaverius firste of the Jesuites whiche brought the Christian faythe unto 
y" Indians.] 

Sir Thomas Stukeley slayne w th the thre Christians kings. 

Of Bocchas. 

Of Petrarke. 

Of Dante. 

Of Oriosfo. 

Of sir Gefferey Chawcer knight. 

Of Buckenel the Scott. 

Of Raphael de Urbino, the great paynter. 

Of Willm Somer, K: H: 8: notable foole. 

Of Theophrastus Paracelsus. 

[Margaret daughter to Duke of Anjoy and wife to K. Henry 6th.] 

Of Elizabeth wife to King Edw: 4. 

Of Margaret 6 Countesse of Richemonde and Darby and mother to K: H: 7. 

Of Quene Katheryn, mother to Quene Marye. 

Of Quene Jane mother to K: Edw: 6: 

Of Quene Katherin Parre, last wife to K: H: 8. 

Of [Isabel] wife to Charles the Vth Empo r , mother to K: Phillip. 

Of Mary Quene of Scottes, executed in Englande. 

Of [Elizabeth] Q: wife to the Frenche Kinge, Charles the 9: 

[Of Isabel daughter to Phillip the second K: of Spayne.] 

Of the Duchesse of Savoye. 

Of a Frenche Duchesse. 

1 Jacques de Poindre. 

'80^1785. The Duke of Alva, 1557. Terry, London. 15155. By Antonio Moro. 

8 Sold 1785. Pater Patriae Andreas Auria. 3 135. 6d. 

4 Sold 1785. Viglius, President of the Council in the Low Countries, 1560. 2 75. 

5 Elizabeth erased. 

VI. E 


1 [Of the olde Countes of Salisburie behedded.] 

2 [Of the olde Marquesse of Dorcett syster to Sir Edw: Wootton.] 

[Of the Counties of Shroesburie 2 wyffe to the first Earle of Shroesburie, eldest 
daughter to Richard Earle of Warwicke, Beachampe.] 

[Of the Ladie Margaret Lenox.] 

Of the Duchesse of Somersett, Stanhop. 

Of Mary Duches of Northfolke, daughter to the last Earl of Arundell [Fitzallen] doone 
by Haunce Eworth. 

Of the Lady Marques of Northampton 3 borne in Swedelande. 

Of the Countes of Huntington, daughter to the Duke of Northumbrelande. 

4 Of the Countesse of Lincolne, daughter to the Earle of Kildare. 
Of the Countesse of Warwicke, daughter to the Earle of Bedfourd. 

Of the Countesse of Essex wife to the 2 Earle of Essex and widow to sir Phillip 

[Of Marye daughter to S r William Candishe wyfe to Gilbert earle of Shrewsburye y l 
now is.] 

Of the Lady Jane Graye, executed. 

Of the Lady Katheryn Graye, married to the Earle of Hertfourd. 

Of the Countesse of Arundell second wife to the late old Earle of Arundell [Fitzallen, j 
daughter to Sir John Arundell of Lanherne in Cornewall. 

Of the Countesse of Arundell, wife to Phillip Earle of Arundell, daughter to the 
Lo: Dacres of the northe. 

5 Of yo r Lo: first wife daughter to the old Earle of Arundell [Fitzallen] drawne by 

Of my La: yo r second wife daughter to the Lo: [John] Darcy of Chiche, drawne by 

Of the La: Darcy of Chiche wife to Thomas the third Lo: Darcy. 

6 Of the La: Guilfourd wife to Sir Henry Guilfourd Coumptroller, drawne by Haunce 

Of an Italian gentlewoman drawen by her selfe and presented to the olde Earle of 
Arundell in Italy. 

Of a Dutche Ladye. 

Of an Italian Gentlewoman in great reputacon w th her husband for her beawty. 

Of Shores wyfe concubyne to K: Edw: 4. 

Of a bride of Constantinople. 

Of Mary Magdalen, drawen by Frauncs Flores. 

Of Lucretia drawne by Cornelius Vancleave of Anwarpe. 

Of Pompeia. 

Of Cleopatra in water colours. 

Of thre Italian Ladyes. 

Off Mary Medices daughter to Francise Duke of Thoscane and to Joan of Austria, and 
wife to Henrie of Borbon Kinge of France. 

1 Perhaps the picture in the collection of the Earl of Loudoun. 

2 Perhaps the picture now at Welbeck Abbey. 
s Dorset erased. 

4 Pennant in his Tour in Scotland mentions tin's picture as dated 1569, and in a singular dress 
of black and gold with a red and gold petticoat. 

5 Now at Lumley Castle. 

6 Formerly in the collection of Mr. Frewen, now in collection of Mr. W. C. Vanderbilt, USA. 



A Speciall picture of Christ cast in mould by Raphael de Urbino, brought into England 
from Rome by Cardynall Poole. 

Thre notable peics of hangings, One of Christ his passage with his Crosse to his 
Passion, The other of his passion, And the third of his Judgement doone by Henry Houm- 
frey, Thes were thos especiall peices, y* honge in S et Magnus churche at the bridge foote 
in London, geve away. 

A large picture of o r blessed Lady with Christ her sonne in her Armes. 

A large table of the Passion of Christ crucified, doone by M r Schore of Utright. 

A table of the fower Evangelists, supporting Christ. 

A picture of S ot Hierome. 

The picture of our Ladie a/* Christ in her armes togltlf ivith S' Catherine and S' Jhon 
Baptist on Canvasse. 

The Passion of Christ cutt in black stone. 

A great large table infolds of the Passion, very anncient and notable. 

A table of Sainct Pawle preachinge. 

A large table of Charite doone by Vincent of Macklen. 

A large table of Noe, doone by Fraunce Flores of Anwarpe. 

A large table of the Rape of Helena, drawne by Cleave Haunce of Anwarpe. 

A table of a j'oung man fancying the riche old woman. 

A large table of the maner of banquetting in Flaunders. 

A table of Anchises and Aeneas. 

A table of Juno and Jupiter. 

A table of Venus and Adonis. 

A table of Dives and Lazarus. 

A table of the building of Babell. 

A table of Judith and Holofernes. 

A table of the sale of Joseph by his brethren. 

A table on the conyng pspective of death and a woman, doone by Hilliarde. 

A table of the Ficlenes of Fortune. 

A counterfeyt of an old booke. 

A table of Cookerye. 

Two large tables of China woork. 

A table of Hercules. 

The 9: worthies in roundels enealed. 

A great table of the birthe of Christ. 

A great table of the fower Evangelistes. 

A great table of the conversion of S ct Pawle. 

1 A great booke of Pictures doone by Haunce Holbyn of certyne Lordes, Ladyes, 
gentlemen and gentlewomen in King Henry the 8: his tyme, their names subscribed by 
S r John Cheke Secretary to King Edward the 6 w ch booke was King Edward the 6. 
2 The picture of S T Edward Kolloy, who was the of golde in before. 

A great table of the temptacions of S ct Antony. 3 

A great table of a Dutche woman selling of fruyte. 

1 The famous series of drawings now at Windsor Castle. 
1 Erased in original MS. 3 Frauncis erased. 

E 2 



A pycter of S* Francis. 
1 The old Morley Henry, doone by Albert Duro. 

The Picture of Lodovicus Orioustus the Poete [done by L.UCWS 2 the payte r .] 

The picture of Count de la Marche who wan Bryll in Holland for the Prynce of 

Other Pictures in small of Christ, our Ladie and his Saints, wrought upon brass, and 
adorned zi*' h marbles and marble Pillars. 

Imago Christi 
Christus crucifixus 
Christus spinis coronatus 
Salvator 12 annor. 
Salvator portans crucem 


Salvator portans mundum 
Imago beatae virginis por- 

tantes Jesum 
Beata virgo Maria Mater 


S ta Maria Magdalena 
S** Maria Magdalena Ti- 


S ta Caecilia 
S to Catherina 
S ta Catherina Senensis 
S ta Martha 
S ta Barbara 
S ta Lucia 
S ta Apollonia 
S' Agatha 
S 4 Helena 
S ta Ursula 

Sum of the valew of the picture 62}. 

S* a Dorothea 

S ta Agnes 

S ta Clara 

S ta Margarita 

S ta Justina 

S ts Joseph cum puero Jesu 

S ts Petrus Apostolus 

S ts Paulus ApTus 

S" Philippus 

S* 8 Jacopus aptus 

S* 8 Symon aptus 

S* Jhon Aptus 

S* Thomas aptus 

S t8 Matheus 

S' Lucas 

S tB Marcus 

S t8 Jhon Baptist 

S ts Bartholomeus 

S t! Mathias 

S t8 Andreas 

S* 8 Stephanus 

S' 9 Jacobus 

S ts Augustinus 

S' 9 Gregorius doctor 

S" Bernardus 

S ts Ambrosius 

S" Hieronimus 

S t8 Anselmus 

S* 8 Tho: Aquinas 

Venerab. Beda 

S' 8 Sebastianus 

S t8 Hiacinthus 

S* 8 Thadeus 

S' 8 Franciscus 

S* 8 Rocchus 

S ts Anthonius abbas 

S' 8 Laurentius 

S' 8 Anthonius de Padua 

S t8 Didacus 

S ta Thomas Cantuariensis 

S' 8 Nicholaus 

S ts Dominicus 

S 48 Franciscus de Paula 

S ts Benedictus 

S* 8 Ludovicus rex Galliae 

S u Peter Martyr 


A SUMARYE of certayne stuffe within your Lo: houses the xxii th of May Anno 1590 
the Inventoryes of the partyculers remaynyng in bookes subscribed by John 
Lambton, gentleman, steward of household to yo r Lo: and under the handes of the 
severall wardropers there. 

Sutes of hanginges of arras, sylke and tapistre Ivii 

Turkye carpettes of sylke xi 

Carpettes of velvet for tables and wyndowes xv 

Other Turky Carpettes iiii x *xv (95) 
Testers 12, Sparvers 3, Pavylions 3, Canapies 6, & Feild beddes 4, wrought 

with gold, sylver and sylke xl 

Coveringes and Quyltes of sylke xl 

Chares of clothe of gold, velvet and sylke Ixxvi 

Quisshins of clothe of gold, velvet, and sylke cix 

Erased in original MS. 

? furio. 



Stooles of clothe of gold, velvet and sylke 

Pallet beddes with their bolsters 

Py Howes 

Lyvereye beddes 


Counter poyntes and Coverlettes 



Woollen Coverlettes and blankettes 

Travyses of sylke for wyndowes 

Bedsteades gylt 

Bed steades of walnuttre and markatre 

Bedsteades of weynskot 

Chares of walnuttre and Markatre 

Stooles of walnuttre and Markatre 

Fourmes of walnuttre 

Tables of walnuttre and Markatre 

Tables of marble 

Cubboordes of walnuttre and Markatre 

Chares of read Spanish lether 

Stooles of nedlewoorke cruell 

Stooles of read Spanishe lether 

Stooles of waynskot 

Cubboordes of Waynskot 

Tables of waynscot 

Andirons of Brasse and parcell Copper, paires 

Great standing wynd Instruments with stoppes 

Vyrgynalles paires 

Rygalles paires 

Jryshe harpes 




Crumpe homes 






iiii" (80) 




























The Stuffe eslemd fj8o. 
" xvii viiid (480. 17. 8.) 

The Armo r valewed 

The Plate & sylver vessell 

The Library Registred in a boke wryten by Alcocke, my L: of Chechester his L: 
servant, A- 1596 with all the rest of my bokes myselfe have dyspersed sundery ways. 



In the Literary Cabinet there is an account of Lumley Castle which 
mentions : 

HALL : Full length portraits of Lumley family. 

John Lord Lumley, 1563. 
ditto 1588. 

ditto 1591. 

Garcia Sarmienta Cuna. Full length in armour, a ruff, red stockings, white shoes, 
a white cross on his breast, a spear in his hand. Out of a window a view of the 
sea. Captain of the Guard to Philip II. 
Ferdinand, Duke of Mar (sic), 1557. In rich armour. 
Duke of Monmouth. Full length. 
Jane Fitzalan, Lady Lumley. In black robes, a small ruff with gloves in her hand 

dress gracefully ornamented with strings of jewels. 

Thomas Ratcliff, Earl of Sussex. Full length in white armour and gold breeches, 
a staff in his right hand, his left resting on a sword. Helmet with an enormous 
plume on a table, crested, amando efidando troppo son ruinato. 
Duke of Suffolk, 1593. In a purple robe. 

Viglius. |, in black gown furred in front, a black cap, sitting in a chair. 
One of the Lumleys. 

A Man in Scarlet Robe. f , white mantle over shoulder, scarlet cap tied in the middle, 
collar of the fleece, scarlet robe furred with white, on which are several times 
repeated the words Ah ! amprins au rajay. Perhaps a misreading of the motto of 
Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, Je I'ay empris. 
Duke of Buckingham. Over chimney. 
Robert Earl of Salisbury. Half length . Sero sed serio. 
Sir William Peter. 

Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth. Of a severe countenance. 
Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 1587. |, with collar of garter, a staff in right hand. 
Andrea Doria, Genoese Admiral, dressed in black, |, cap, long beard, collar with fleece, 

pendant, truncheon, a dagger in girdle, view of ships through a window. 
John, Lord Lumley, 1588. Full length in rich armour. 

ditto 1591- Black skull cap, a white beard, in his robes. By Richard 



King Charles II on horseback. 

Zebedeus, Jacobus Major, Salome, Christo coevus, a group of four, a fine picture 

supposed by Holbein. 
In the LODGING ROOMS, &c. 

John, Lord Russell. 


Elizabeth, Countess of Surrey. Singular dress of black and gold with a red and gold 

petticoat. Dated 1560. 
Sir John Petre. 

Ambrose, Earl of Warwick. A bonnet, furred cloak, small ruff, and pendant George. 
Earl of Surrey. In black with a sword and dagger, 1545. 
King Edward VI. Full length. 
Ralph Lumley, 1567. Small full length. 
Sir Thomas More. Half length, dressed in that plainness of apparel which he used 

when the dignity of office was laid aside ; in a furred robe with a coarse 

capucin cap. 

William Cecil, lord high treasurer of England. Half length, in black with garter. 
Mr. Thomas Wyndham. Good half length, a robust figure in green, with a red sash 

and a gun in his hand. Aged 42 MDL. 

Earl of Essex. Full length, in black covered with white embroidery. 
Sir Nicholas Carew. Awhile feather in his hat, his head bound round with a gold stuff 

Last Earl of Arundel. |. 

5/A Earl of Bedford. Engraved among the illustrious heads. 
Killigrew. In a red sash, with his dog. 

| unknown. 1596, aet. 43. Striped jacket, blue and white, garter. 
Paracelsus. Philip Theophrastes Paracelsus Bombast de Hohenheim Aureolus. Very 

handsome, bald, close black gown, with both hands on a great sword on whose 

hilt is the word Azot. 

Sir Anthony Browne. Head, bushy beard, bonnet, and Garter, high crowned hat. 
Fernandes de Toledo, duke of Alva. In rich armour with rather short black hair and 

(Chaucer mentioned by Dr. Stukeley not found.) 

(See Hutchinson's History of Durham!) 


Sale of Household Furniture, etc., the property of the late Earl of Scarborough, dec., 1 

at Lumley Castle. 

By Mr. Christie on the Premises. 

Monday, August 8, 1785 and 3 following days. 


No. 5. Portrait of a Lady. Sir P. Lely. 3 13 6 

6. ditto ditto. 4 14 6 

7. ditto of Sir Thomas Killigrew. ,990 
10. ditto less half length, John, Lord Russell, Earl of Bedford, 1555. 2 5 o 

1 At these sales certain pictures were bought in for the family, some of which remain in the 
possession of the present Earl of Scarbrough. 


11. ditto less half length, Sir Anthony Browne, Viscount Montague. 3 18 o 

12. ditto i ii 6 

13. ditto half length of the Countess of Lincoln, 1560. 

13. ditto a gentleman in armour. Mr. Cole. 220 

14. ditto of Devereux, Earl of Essex, 1590. 440 

15. ditto of Sir Thomas Moore, Lord Chancellor. Mr. Hay, Saville 

Row. Stated to be by Holbein. 5 15 6 

16. ditto Cecil, Lord Burleigh, Lord High Treasurer. 3 13 6 

17. ditto of Sir John Peter. ^3 3 

19. ditto less Howard, Earl of Surrey, 1545. j 17 6 

20. ditto of Ambrose, Earl of Warwicke. 15 6 

21. ditto of Mr. Wyndham, 1550. ^55 

22. ditto Queen Mary. ^55 

23. ditto Queen Elizabeth. 660 

24. ditto small life | of Mr. Lumley slain in the battle of Floddenfield. 220 

25. ditto whole length, of Ralph Lumley, 1567. 2 12 6 

26. ditto of Edward the Sixth. 6 16 6 

28. ditto whole length of a gentleman in armour (Philip of Spain). 5 15 6 

29. ditto of the Duke of Monmouth. 16 5 6 

30. ditto a pair ditto half lengths of John, Lord Lumley and Jane his 

first wife, 1563. ^5 5 o 

31. ditto the Duke of Alva, 1557. Terry, London. 15 15 o 

Music ROOM : 

32. whole length portrait of Radcliff, Earl of Sussex, in armour. Terry. 10 10 o 

33. ditto the Duke of Suffolk. Terry. 770 

34. ditto John Baron de Lumley in armour 1588. ) .. 

35. ditto in his robes of State, 1591. ) 

36. half length of Robert, Earl of Salisbury. 3 13 6 

37. Sir William Peter, Secretary to Henry 8th., Edward 6th., Queen 

Mary and Queen Elizabeth. 5 5 o 

38. Pater Patriae Andreas Auria. .3 13 6 

39. ditto Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 1587. ^33 

40. ditto Viglius, president of the council, in the low countries, 1560. 270 

41. ditto of the Lumley family. i i o 

42. ditto of Henry Fitzalan, Earl of Arundell, the last of that name. 4 14 6 

45. John Lasle, Lord Preceptor. Lord Grey. ^33 

46. Duke of Buckingham. Lady Williamson. 440 

47. King Charles the ist. on horse back. Van Dyck. 42 o o 

48. A curious old picture of Zebedee, his wife and children. 16 16 o 

49. The first Earl of Scarborough, half length. 1 

50. General Lumley. 7 7 o 

51. Lady Hallifax. 

52. Lady Blacket. 

53. Richard Lumley, Earl of Scarborough. 


54. Two children, The Hon. Richard and Thomas Lumley. 

55. Four oval portraits, the Hon. James, Charles, John, and Lady Harriet 



56. The adoration of the Shepherds large and capital. ^55 


57. Portrait of Sir Nicholas Carew, Master of the Horse to Henry the 8th 10 10 o 


59. Four ancient marble busts and a ditto group of a pelican. 

60. Seventeen whole length family portraits with the pedigree and arms 

of Lumley from Liulphus, Minister to William the Conqueror, 
down to Elizabeth Darcey de Chiche. 


Catalogue of Pictures, Furniture, etc., property of the Rt. Hon. the Earl of 

Scarborough, deceased. 

To be sold by auction by Mr. Dawson on the premises on Monday, Nm 1 . 2., 1807 

and 5 following days. 

FOURTH DAY'S SALE, Nov. 5, 1807. 
No. 46. Pictures. Basement. 

No. i. An animated portrait, Vandyke. 

2. Henry VIII in splendid regal costume, in high preservation, Holbein. 

10. Henry VIII in winter costume, a fine ancient portrait on pannel. 

11. Philip II, full length, in rich armour. 

12. Frederick Prince of Wales in his robes, a noble full length portrait. 

17. The Circumcision, a panel ; school of Rembrandt. 

18. The Turk ; a fine spirited head ; Rembrandt. 

19. The Head of an old man, a capital picture, Rembrandt. 

20. The portrait of a nun in a spandel frame. 
24. A Musician ; spirited portrait. 

21. Charles II in armour; a masterly finished portrait ; Lely. 

30. M Ogle Howard ; three-quarter portrait ; Lely. 

31. The Countess of Berkeley ditto. 

33. Lord Treasurer Burleigh, ancient, on pannel. 

36. A nobleman in rich costume, in a French frame ; Vandyke. 

37. A lady, the companion ditto ; Vandyke. 

40. A lady in rich drapery, | length ; Lely. 

41. The companion, a lady playing on the lute. 

42. The King proceeding in State to the House of Lords with architecture ; Marlow. 

VI. F 


51. Sir George Saville, full length. 

52. The Countess of Scarborough, length ; Lely. 

58. Joseph and his brethren, a great masterly composition ; Velasquez. 
72. Charles I, in plain attire, leaning at a window ; Vandyke. 
74. The Marquis of Rockingham a basso-relievo on frame. 


Catalogue of excellent Household Furniture, etc. of the Earl of Scarborough, 

Deceased, at Lumley Castle. 

To be sold by auction by Mr. Dawson (by order of the Executors) on the Premises 
on Wednesday the i6//i. of December 1807, and three following days. 


Pictures etc. No. 26. Great Hall. 

The tablets with the arms and pedigrees of the Lumleys and 17 

whole length portraits. 16 16 o 
Equestrian Statue of Liulphus, as large as life. 


No. 3. Garcia Sarmienta Cuna. Full length in armour. 300 

4. Duke of Monmouth. Full length. ^33 

5. Jane Fitzallen, ist wife of John Lord Lumley. i 14 o 

6. John Baron Lumley 1503. .240 

7. Duke of Alva 1557. 10 10 o 

8. Mr. Lumley, slain the Battle of Floddenfield. 212 o 

9. Edward the 6th. a full length. 3 15 o 


10. View of Roch Abbey. .5 10 o 


14. John Baro de Lumley, in armour, 1588, whole length. 5 10 o 

15. Thomas Ratcliffe, Earl of Sussex, in armour. 600 

16. Duke of Buckingham. 7 10 o 

17. Duke of Suffolk, in purple robes, 1593. 3 

18. John Baro de Lumley, in his robes. 2 15 o 

20. Sir Thomas Moore, Lord Chancellor. 5 5 

21. Sir Thomas Killigrew. 770 

22. Ambrose Earl of Warwick. 55 


23. His Majesty the Prince of Wales. .8 o o 

25. Small painting of the Temptation of St. Antony. 200 

26. The Queen. 3 15 o 


27. Lady Sydney, daughter of Secretary Walsingham and wife of 

Robert Earl of Essex. 

28. Sir Thomas Saunderson, brother to the 2nd. Earl of Scarborough. 

29. Mr. Wyndham, who was drowned on the coast of Guinea. 

32. The Duke of Argyle. 

33. Sir Anthony Brown, Knight of the Garter. 

33. Zebedee and family. 

34. Lord Townsend, whole length. 


35. Half length of Sir Anthony Brown Montague. 


40. Half length of Peter Patrice (sic). 



Sir John Peter. 
Henry Fitzallen Earl of Arundel. 
Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester, 1587. 
Sir William Peter. 

46. Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, 1545. 


58. Earl of Essex. 


63. Viglius, 1560. 

64. Countess of Lincoln, 1560. 

65. John Lord Russell, ist. Earl of Bedford. 
67. Paracelsus. 


5 5 o 

/2 II 6 

4 10 o 


l 12 O 

10 6 
i 10 o 
2 13 o 

x>4 o o 

3 16 o 
i 5 o 
* 10 o 

F 2 


THE inventory of 1590, preserved at Lumley Castle, has long been known 
as a mine of valuable information respecting early historical portraits in 

A second inventory was drawn up for purposes of probate on the death 
of John, Lord Lumley, in April 1609, and is filed at the present day, together 
with his original will, at the Probate Registry of Durham. This inventory, with 
the Earl of Scarbrough's kind approval, is printed in full below. Although the 
information it affords in regard to paintings is meagre when compared with 
that of the inventory of 1590, it offers many interesting points for considera- 
tion, and gives, in addition, details of tapestry and other appurtenances which 
are lacking in the earlier document. 1 

The headings of the inventory of 1590 make it clear that it covered Lord 
Lumley's moveable possessions in all his houses, which, in addition to Lumley 
Castle, included Nonsuch Palace, near Cheam, in Surrey, and his London 
residence at Tower Hill. 

A certyficate of .... all his Lo: monumentes of Marbles, Pictures and tables in Payn- 
ture with other his Lordshippes Howseholde stuffe, and Regester of Bookes. Anno 1590, 

A sumarye of certayne stuffe within your Lo: houses, etc. 2 

The inventory of 1609, on the contrary, applies to Lumley Castle only. 
Notwithstanding the probability that, on giving up Nonsuch, Lord Lumley 
transferred a large portion of its contents to Lumley Castle, the disparity in the 
number of entries contained respectively in the two inventories is so considerable 
as to point to one of two conclusions. Either a number of objects were with- 
drawn from Lumley in the course of the nineteen years which intervened 

' The inventory of 1590 was printed in Miss Milner's Records of the Lumleys (George Bell & Sons, 
J 94\ from which all the quotations in this article, relating to that inventory, are taken. An abbre- 
viated version of the inventory of 1609 was published (as Mr. Cust kindly informs me) in Surtees, 
History of Durham, vol. z (London, 1820). 

* The italics are the present writer's. 


between the drafting of the two inventories, an hypothesis which appears in 
the highest degree improbable ; or a portion of the items enumerated in the 
earlier inventory never went to Lumley at all. This seems to be the true 

A glance at Lord Lumley's circumstances at the time will help to make 
the matter clear. His father-in-law, Henry FitzAlan, last Earl of Arundel of 
that name, had acquired Nonsuch from Queen Mary at a time when it seemed 
in imminent danger of being pulled down. Lord Arundel was a man of large 
ideas and fine taste. He completed and beautified the place, furnished it with 
a splendid library his librarian, Humphrey Llwyd, married Lord Lumley's 
sister and probably collected here a large part of the portraits which figure 
in the first Lumley inventory. Lord Arundel had had a long and varied 
public and diplomatic career, and most of the English and foreign notabilities 
with whom he came in contact can be traced amongst the portraits enumerated 
in the inventory of 1590. 

Lord Arundel's only son died in early manhood, while on a diplomatic 
mission to Brussels. His two daughters then became co-heiresses of their 
father. Both predeceased him. One was Mary, Duchess of Norfolk ; the other 
Jane, Lady Lumley. Mary, Duchess of Norfolk, left an only child, who 
became Philip, Earl of Arundel. But his youthful extravagance and excesses 
so alienated his grandfather, that the latter, who died in 1580, left Nonsuch, 
with all its priceless treasures, to his widowed and childless son-in-law, Lord 
Lumley. The two men must have been congenial companions. Lord Lumley 
had the reputation of considerable learning, and himself collected both books 
and pictures, though he never can have had the means to do so to the extent 
practised by Lord Arundel ; especially as large sums must have been devoted 
to the restoration of Lumley Castle, part of which was completed in 1570. 
The portraits added to the Lumley inventory of 1590 at dates subsequent to 
the death of Lord Arundel show, however, the warm interest taken by Lumley 
in the collection of works of art. He made munificent gifts of books to the 
University Library at Cambridge, and to the Bodleian at Oxford. At his death 
the bulk of his books were bought for Henry, Prince of Wales, and passed into 
the Royal collection. They now form a valuable portion of the King's Library 
in the British Museum. It seems likely that the majority of these volumes 
originally proceeded from the fine library established by Lord Arundel at 

After the death of his father-in-law, Lord Lumley became more and more 
involved in financial difficulties. In 1590 he resolved to make over Nonsuch 
to the Queen, in order to avoid the expense of keeping it up. The cession of 
Nonsuch to Queen Elizabeth no doubt was the occasion which gave birth to 
the first inventory. At about this time he probably removed to Lumley Castle 


the greater part of the pictures, and some of the furniture, left him by Lord 
Arundel. Some may, however, have found their way to his house at Tower 
Hill, or even have remained at Nonsuch, where, nominally as keeper, he 
continued to reside till his death in 1609. Obviously he could not dismantle 
a house he still continued to occupy; and this appears to account for the 
disparity between the two inventories. An analysis of a few categories selected 
for example brings this out very clearly. Incidentally it will show that the 
discrepancy is much less with regard to pictures than in other directions; 
revealing Lord Lumley's intention to make Lumley Castle with some notable 
exceptions the chief home of his art collections. 

Inventory 0/7/90 (General). 
Sutes of hanginges of arras, sylke and 
tapistre 57 

Turkye carpettes of sylke n 

Other Turky Carpettes 95 

Chares of clothe of gold, velvet, and 
sylke 76 

Quisshins of clothe of gold, velvet, and 
silke 109 


' Whole Statuary ' (full lengths) 46] 

' Of Smaller Scantling ' 167 j- 255 

' Other Pictures and Tables ' 42) 

Inventory of 1609 (Lumley only). 
Suites of hangings of arras, silk and 

Turkey carpets of silk 
Other Turkey carpets 
Chairs of cloth of gold, velvet & silk 

Cushions of cloth of gold, etc. 


Described by name 28 

' Little pictures ' 76 

'Create pictures' 15 

' Pictures ' 19 

' Pictures in the Gallery ' 91 

'In the Wardropp ' 4' 




r 233 

The death of Lord Lumley brought the occupation of Nonsuch to an end, 
and whatever property of his remained there must now have been either sold 
or removed to the house at Tower Hill. There is no evidence to show that 
anything except the books were sold; as far as pictures are concerned, the 
presumption, as will be seen, is rather the other way. 

The house at Tower Hill now became the property of the widow, Lord 
Lumley's second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of John, Lord Darcy of Chiche. 
This lady, whom he had married in 1582, appears to have gained a considerable 
ascendancy over him in his declining years. The Lumley estates he entailed 
on his cousins of that name; the Surrey property, including his house at 
Cheam, passed to his sister and her husband, Humphrey Llwyd, and their 
descendants. But the art collections, both at Lumley and in London, appear 
to have remained at the sole disposition of his wife. There is no allusion to 
them whatever in Lord Lumley's will. Lady Lumley, on the contrary, has 
much to say about them. In her will, dated November 6, 1616 she died early 


in 1617 she leaves to Sir Richard Lumley and his heirs (subject to certain 
conditions which were doubtless fulfilled), ' all my household stuffe with marbles 
and pictures as shall be in the Castle of Lumley at the tyme of my death, there 
to remaine as Airelomes to that house so long as they will endure '. She had 
already at this time made over to her brother, Thomas, Lord Darcy of Chiche, 
the house at Tower Hill. This gift she confirms by her will, entailing it after 
his decease on his daughter, Elizabeth, Lady Savage, and adding a clause 
similar to that concerning Lumley : ' And for such marbles and pictures as 
shalbe in my house at Towerhill at the tyme of my death ... my wyll is that 
the same shall remaine as Aireloomes to that house unto the heires thereof 
as long as they will endure.' 1 In this house there seems to have been also 
a collection of armour which she bequeathed to her nephew, Sir Thomas 

It would be interesting to know what these ' marbles and pictures ' were, 
at Tower Hill; and the inference is almost irresistible that, as regards paintings, 
those omitted from the second Lumley inventory furnish the clue. Evidently, 
when the main part of the collections was sent to Lumley, a few works were 
held back to adorn Nonsuch and Tower Hill. Amongst these were some of 
the gems. They can be identified in part by their rapid re-appearance after the 
demise of Elizabeth, Lady Lumley (the terms of her will notwithstanding), in 
the collections of Charles I, Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, and elsewhere. 
When items from the inventory of 1590 are early found in the possession of 
new owners, especially in or near London, the presumption is strong that they 
never made the journey to the north. Those that were sent to Lumley appear 
to have remained undisturbed for a prolonged period. Some of them can be 
traced in the catalogue of the sale which took place at Lumley Castle in 1785, 
proving that, up to that date, they had not changed their domicile, though 
in some cases there was probably leakage before that time. Those, on the 
other hand, which in all likelihood never left the south, quickly pass into other 
homes. Of the eleven works directly attributed to ' Haunce Holbyn' in the in- 
ventory of 1590, five re-appear in the Arundel inventory of i654. 2 These include 
the famous portrait of the Duchess of Milan, now in the National Gallery, Sir 
Thomas (?Sir Henry) Wyatt, Sir Henry Guildford, Lady Guildford, and Erasmus; 
to say nothing of the 'greate booke' of Holbein drawings which, although not 
included in the inventory of 1654, is known to have belonged to Lord Arundel, 
after probably passing through the hands of Charles I and Lord Pembroke. 3 
The list might be extended much further were well-known sitters to Holbein . 

1 Records of the Lumleys, pp. 94-100. 

* Burlington Magazine, vol. xix, August and September, 1911. 

' In 1629 Lord Arundel was apparently treating for a book of Holbein drawings through 
Sir Henry Vane, then in Holland. See Sainsbury, Original Papers relating to Rubens, p. 293. 


to be included whose portraits figure in the first Lumley inventory without 
the name of the painter, and which, in some cases, may therefore have been 
copies. It is, however, probable that where portraits of the same individuals 
appear in both the Lumley and Arundel inventories, the versions are, for the 
most part, identical. Another interesting work which both inventories have 
in common is the water-colour portrait of Henry, Lord Morley, by Albert 

Amongst the Holbein portraits offered for sale at Lumley Castle in 1785 or 
1807 were those of Sir Anthony Browne, Sir Nicholas Carew, and Sir Thomas 
More. These therefore formed part of the collection which travelled to the 
north, and for nearly two hundred years had their dwelling there. 

How long after the death of Elizabeth, Lady Lumley, the 'marbles and 
pictures' at Tower Hill remained intact is unknown. But that portions of them, 
at least, must have been dispersed before the outbreak of the Civil War is 
evident from what has been said above. 

A trew Inventarie of all such moveables as were found in Lumley Castle after the 
decease of the Lord John Lumley late Husband to the Ladie Elizabeth Lumley now living 

whom he left sole Executrix by his last Will and Testament priced and valued the xxiiii daie 
of Aprill Anno Dni 1609 by us the praysers hereof whose names are underwritten viz. 

Imprimis vii peeces of hangines of Arras w th gold of the storie of Troy p e Ixxx 1 ' 

Item vii peeces of hangines of Quene Hester like the other price Ixxx 11 

Itm fyve deep peeces of fine hangines of Cipio & Haniball price lxxx li 

Itm vi peeces of hangins of Jason & Medea of a lardge ancient making Ixxx 11 

Itm vi peeces of hangins of the storie of King Pluto price Ixxx 1 ' 

Itm fower peeces of hangins of the storie of the Amazons price lx n 

Itm 3 peeces of hangins of the storie of Paris price xl 11 

Itm xii peeces of buskie hangins price c" 

Itm xxi peeces of hangins of the storie of King Saul and David price cxx" 

Itm iiii peeces of hangins of the storie of St George price xl 11 

Itm vii peeces of hangins of the storie of Amadis price Ixx" 

Itm iiii peeces of hangins of gilte leather price iii u 

Itm viii peeces of beddes of gold silver & silk with their furnitures price cc 11 xiii" iiii d 

Itm 3 bedds of broad cloth vidz* one purple one carnation and one greene xx u xiii* iiii' 1 

Itm two standing bedsteads of wainscott w th there furnitures price Hi" 

Itm one lardge travers of purple taffatie vi 1 ' 

Itm 3 chaires of cloth of gold and silver w th a long quishion of the same xv u 

Itm one purple cloth of gold chayre w* h a long quishion price Hi 1 ' 

Itm two needle work chaires w th two long quishions of the same price iii u 

Itm two chaires one of crimson silk & gold the other of crimson silk & silver 

w th two little stooles price Hi 1 ' 
Itm two greene velvett chaires & two long quishions of the same & two little 

stooles price Hi" 


Itm two purple velvett chaires & iii purple velvett quishions & a little stoole 

price v" 
Itm one chaire of tissue of silver & gold one long quishion and a little stoole 

price iii 11 xiii' iiii d 

Itm two crimson velvett chaires price xl* 
Itm two chaires one of purple cloth of gold the other of crimson cloth of gold 

of Bodkin w" 1 two long quishions & little stoole of purple velvett price iii 11 
Itm one chaire inlaid w th boane of crimson velvett & cloth of Bodkin w th two 

long quishions & one little stoole of purple velvett price xl 1 

Itm one chaire & two low stooles of Ash coloure cloath of gold price xl* 
Itm two damask chaires iii low stooles of damask & two long quishions of 

damask price 1* 
Itm 5 black velvett chaires two lowe stooles of black velvett & one little 

square quishion price xl' 
Itm one crimson velvett printed chaire w* two lowe stooles & one long 

quishion price xl* 
Itm one olde black velvett chaire embrodered w" 1 gold of silver w th a long 

quishion suitable to it x* 

Itm one yallow velvett chaire w ih a long quishion price xx* 
Itm one purple cloth chaire w tb a long Cushion & two lowe stooles of the 

same price xx' 
Itm one long needlework quishion w th a little cushion sutable to it one long 

arras cushion w th my ladie Arrundell's armes one long crimson velvett 

quishion embrodered w th cloth of tissue & one long turkie cushion of 

Crowle price iii" 
Itm xii little crimson velvett quishions wrought & stryped & viii square 

quishions of crimson velvett plaine price is viii u 

Itm one carpett of crimson damask fringed w' h gold price xl* 

Itm fyve square velvett carpetts iii purple & two greene price x u 

Itm one Turkey Carpett of silk & gold vi 11 

Itm one Carpett of purple cloth fringed w th purple silk price x* 

Itm fower square turkey Carpetts of silk vii u 

Itm xv Turkey Carpetts of Crowles of divers sorts price xi" 

Itm 5 long Turkey Carpetts of Crowles xxv" 

Itm 3 long Carpetts of greencloth xl* 

Itm xi cases of quishions of gilt leather price x* 

Itm xix pallut bedds & xviii bolsters & 20 pillowes price xx u 

Itm 9 paire of lardge fustians price iii" 

Itm vi Pollonia Ruggs vidz' 3 greene one white one oringe & one red xl* 

Itm x Spanish rugg blankets xx* 

Itm xiii Coverletts for pallats price xl* 

Itm fyve liverey bedds price xl* 

Itm 4 woolle bedds price xx' 

Itm 8 mattress's price x* 

Itm 6 pewter basons price vi* viii d 
Itm two paire of Racks one brandreth 6 brotches one boyling iron 3 brasse 

kettles & iiii brasse potts price xx* 



In the Hall 

Itm two long tables vidz' thone of walnottree* the other of firr price iii" 

Itm *a Deare's head that came out of Ireland price ii 8 vi d 

Itm *xiii old Emperors heads of Roome xiii' 

Itm * a written table called the theater of the world in golden tres price v" 

Itm * Raphaell Orbines his picture vi d (?vi') 

Itm Henrie the 8 Edward the VI Quene Mary Quene Elizabeth cutt in 
marble* the pictures of Arristotle Plato my Lord of Arrundell's Creaste 

the birth of Christ in allabaster price xl' 

Itm vi old Emperors in marble x' 

Itm the storie & pictures of Mars & Venus price iii' iiii d 

Itm Hercules picture* & the picture of Tyme* price v 3 

In the Great Chamber 

Itm *xv pictures of my Lord Lumlei's Ancestors w th a pillar of his pedigree 

price viii 1 ' 

Itm a picture of the storie of the Passion * w th a sersnet curtaine the picture 
of my Lord Lumley in Armoure w th his two wyves* his sonne Charles* 
& the old Earle of Arundell* the storie of the birth of Christe* & the 
nyne worthies neeled in glass* together w lh the picture of Christe* & 
two gloobes in plaine price xiii 11 

Itm two long drawinge tables of Walnottree one folding table of wainscott & 

a little table of wainscott price v 1 ' 

Itm one merketree table w th the frame price xl' 

Itm two fyne merketree cupbords & two liverey cupbords price xiii 1 ' 

Itm 6 wallnottree formes & 24 stooles of wallnottree price I' 

Itm 6 walnottree chaires price xxx' 

In the Saule 

Itm 76 little pictures price xii u 

Itm xv greate pictures price v" 

Item ten marble tablets w th their frames xxx" 

Itm one fountaine price x u 

In the Drawinge Chamber 

Itm xix pictures price vi 11 vi' viii d 
Itm three other pictures vidz' Quene Maries* Quene Elizabeths* & Con- 

stantynes the great price x' 

Itm viii paire of brasse handirons & 3 paire pcell Copper vi" xiii' iiii' 1 

Itm one chimney pece of white marble w th Cherubins price xl" 

Itm x square oake & elme tables & liverie Cupbords sutable iii" vi' viii d 

Itm vi paire of fire shovels & tonges iii' 

Itm one steele glasse price xii d 
Itm vi standing bedsteads & two sparver bedsteads thone gilte thother plaine 

price viii" 

* An asterisk denotes that the item can be identified in the Lumley ' Red Velvet Book ', which 
includes the inventory of 1590. The prices indicated are so ludicrous that they can hardly have 
been intended as a serious attempt at valuation, even allowing for gross ignorance on the part of 
the valuers, and for the difference in the worth of money. 


I tin 91 pictures in the gallery & 4 in the wardropp price xl u 

Itm one wainscott table in the gallerie price xx' 

Itm 20 wainscott stooles & iiii wainscott serenes price xxvi' 

Itm one old iron chist & a firre chist price x" 

The total of all these pticulers as they are above prised 

amounteth to the sume of 

mcccciiii" xvii* viii d 

Lyonell Maddison \ / 

Ty. Drap I Date of Will 25th January, 1606 

William Bonner | Date of Inventory 24th April, 1609 

Richard Read j Date of Probate, 1609 

Rob 1 Porrett 

It is not without interest to read in conjunction with the above, the description 
of Lumley Castle and its contents printed by Pennant in his Tour in Scotland. 
This account will be found in the editions of that work published in 1776 (p. 321) 
and 1 790 (p. 319), possibly in some others. It is reprinted below from the edition 
of 1790. The fact that it is not found in all editions of the Tour in Scotland, 
coupled with the circumstance that the descriptions of certain portraits arc 
verbally identical with those of the Literary Cabinet, as given by Mr. Cust on 
p. 30 of the present volume, points to the conclusion that Pennant's notes on 
the Lumley pictures as apart from those on the Castle itself were not derived 
from personal observation, but were incorporated from some extraneous source. 
The two accounts appear, in fact, to have a common origin : that of the Literary 
Cabinet containing the larger number of entries, while the notes of the Tour in 
Scotland can lay greater claim to accuracy. 

Pennant enriched these notes with historical observations on the persons 
concerned. Although not invariably correct from the point of view of modern 
research, his comments are so redolent of eighteenth-century atmosphere, and 
add so much piquancy and colour to the list of items enumerated, that they arc 
here reproduced verbatim, together with Pennant's foot-notes. 

Extract from Pennant's Tour in Scotland (ed. 1790, p. 319). 

At a fmall diftance from the town, (lands Lumley caftle, the antient feat of the name. 
It is a fquare pile, with a court in the middle, and a fquare tower at each corner; is 
modernized into an excellent houfe, and one of the feats of the Earl of Scarborough. It is 
faid to have been built in the time of Edward I. by Sir Robert de Lumley, and enlarged by 
his fon Sir Marmaduke. Prior to that, the family residence was at Lumley, (from whence 
it took the name) a village a mile fouth of the Caftle, where are remains of a very old 
hall-houfe, that boafts a greater antiquity. The former was not properly cancellated, till the 
year 1392, when Sir Ralph (the firft Lord Lumley) obtained from Richard II. Licentiam 
caltrum fuum de Lomley denovo edificandum, muro de petra et cake batellare et kernellare 
et caftrum illud sic batellatum, et kernellatum tenere, &c. This Sir Ralph was a faithful 

G 2 


adherent to his unfortunate fovereign, and loft his life in his caufe, in the infurrection, in 
the year 1400, againft the ufurping Henry. There are no dates, except one on a fquare 
tower; I. L. 1570, when, I prefume, it was rebuilt by John Lord Lumley. 

Portraits. The houfe is a noble repofitory of portraits, of perfons eminent in the fixteenth century. 

Earl of The brave, impetuous, prefuming, Robert, Earl of EJJex, appears in full length, dreffed 

in black, covered with white embroidery. A romantic nobleman, of parts without difcretion ; 
who fell a facrifice to his own paffions, and a vain dependence for fafety on thofe of an 
aged queen, doting with unfeafonable love ; and a criminal credulity in the insinuation of 
his foes. 

Sir T. More. Sir Thomas More; a half length, dreffed in that plainness of apparel which he ufed, 
when the dignity of office was laid afide : in a furred robe, with a coarse capuchin cap. 
He was the moft virtuous, and the greateft character of his time ; who, by a circumftance 
that might humiliate human nature, fell a victim for a religious adherence to his own 
opinion : after being a violent perfecutor of others, for firmnefs to the dictates of their own 
confcience. To fuch inconfiftencies are the beft of mankind liable ! 

Earl of The gallant, accomplifhed, poetical Earl of Surry ; in black, with a fword & dagger, 

Surry. the j ate ^^ -phe orname nt (fays M r Walpole] of a boifterous, yet not unpolifhed court, 
a victim to a jealous tyrant, and to family difcord. The articles alledged againft him, and ' 
his conviction, are the fhame of the times. 

Countess of A portrait of a lady in a fingular drefs of black & gold, with a red & gold petticoat, 
dated 1560. This is called Elizabeth, third wife of Edward, Earl of Lincoln, the fair 
Geraldine, celebrated fo highly by the Earl of Surry ; but fo ill-favored in this picture, that 
I muft give it to his firft wife, Elizabeth Blount. Geraldine was the young wife of his old 
age. Her portrait at Woburn reprefents her an object worthy the pen of the amorous Surry. 

Ambrose Ambrofe Dudley, Earl of Warwick, fon of the great Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. 

Warwick ^' s drefs a Donnet furred cloak, fmall ruff, and pendant George. This peer followed the 
fortunes of his father, but was received into mercy, and reftored in blood ; was created Earl 
of Warwick by Queen Elizabeth, and proved a gallant & faithful fubject. He died in 1589, 
& lies under an elegant brafs tomb in the chapel at Warwick. 

Sir William Sir William Peter, or Petre, native of Devon/hire, fellow of All-Souls College, and 
afterwards fecretary of ftate to four princes; Henry VIII., Edward VI.; Mary, & Elizabeth. 
His prudence, in maintaining his poft in reigns of fuch different tempers, is evident; but in 
that of Mary he attended only to politics; of Elizabeth, to religion.* 
The firft Earl of Bedford, engraven among the illuftrious heads. 

Paracelsus. A half-length of the famous eccentric phyfician and chymift of the fifteenth century, 

Philip Theophrafius Paracelsus Bombaft de Hohenheim : on the picture is added alfo the title 
of Aureolus. The cures he wrought were fo very furprizing in that age, that he was 
fuppofed to have recourfe to fupernatural aid ; and probably, to give greater authority to his 
practice, he might infinuate that he joined the arts medical & magical. He is reprefented 
as a very handfome man, bald, in a clofe black gown, with both hands on a great fword, on 
whofe hilt is infcribed the word Azof. This was the name of \\isfamiliarfpirit, that he kept 
imprifoned in the pummel, to confult on emergent occafions. Butler humourously dekribes 
this circumftance : 

Bombaftus kept a devil's bird 
Shut in the pummel of his fword ; 
That taught him all the cunning pranks 
Of paft or future mountebanks.f 

* Dugdale's Baron II. 388. Prince's Worthies of Devonshire. 498. 
t Hudibras, part II. c. iii. 


A head of Sir Anthony Brown, a favourite of Henry VIII. with a bufhy beard, bonnet, Sir Anthony 
and order of the garter. He was matter of the horfe to that prince, and appointed by him Brown - 
one of the executors of his will ; & of the council to his young succeffor. 

Two full lengths of John Lord Lumley : one in rich armour, a grey beard, dated 1588, John Lord 
aet. 54 ; the other in his robes, with a glove and handkerchief in one hand, a little black Lumley. 
skull-cap, white beard, dated 1591. This, I believe, was the performance of Richard 
Stevens, an able ftatuary, painter, & medallift, mentioned by M r Walpole.* 

This illuftrious nobleman, reftored the monuments that are in the neighbouring church, 
was a patron of learning, and a great collector of books, affifted by his brother-in-law, 
Humphrey Lhuyd, the famous antiquary. The books were afterwards purchafed by James I. 
and proved the foundation of the royal library. M r Granger says, that they are a very 
valuable part of the Briti/h Mufeum. 

His firft wife, Jane Fitzallan, daughter of the Earl of Arundel ; in black robes, with 
gloves in her hand. She was a lady of uncommon learning, having tranflated, from the 
Greek into Latin, fome of the orations of IJocrates,&. the Iphigenia of Euripides into Engli/h. 
She compliments her father highly in a dedication to him, prefixed to one of the orations, 
which begins, ' Cicero, Pater honoratiffime, illuftrif '. She died before him, & was buried at 
Cheame, in Surrey, f 

The Earl himfelf, the laft of that name : a three-quarters piece. His valour distinguifhed Earl of 
him in the reign of Henry VIII. when he ran with his squadron close under the walls of Arundel - 
Boulogne, & foon reduced it. In the following reign, he oppofed the mifufed powers of the 
unhappy Protector, Somerfet; and yet declined connection with the great Northumberland. 
He fupported the juft rights of Queen Mary ; was imprifoned by the former, but on the 
revolution was employed to arreft the abject fallen duke. He was clofely attached to his 
royal miftrefs by fimilitude of religion. In his declining years, he aimed at being hufband 
to Queen Elizabeth.^. Had her majefty deigned to put herfelf under the power of man, (he 
never would have given the preference to age. On his difappointment, he went abroad ; 
and, on his return, firft introduced into England the ufe of coaches. 

A half-length of that artful ftatefman, Robert Earl of Salujbury, minifter of the laft Robert 
years of Elizabeth, and the firft of James I. lalusbury 

Thomas Ratcliff, Earl of Suffex, || a full length ; young and handfome ; his body armed, R atc |jff 
the reft of his drefs white ; a staff in his right hand, his left refting on a fword ; on a table Earl of' 
a hat, with a vaft plume. This motto, amando et fidendo troppo Jon ruinato. This 
nobleman was a considerable character in the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth ; frequently 
employed in embaflles; in both reigns deputy of Ireland; and in the firft, an active 
perfecutor of the proteftants. He conformed outwardly to the religion of his new miftrefs ; 
was appointed by her prefident of the north, and commanded againft, and fuppreffed, the 
rebellion of the Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland, notwithftanding he fecretly 

* Anecd. Painting. I. 161. 

t She was dead before December 3oth, 1579, as appears by her father's will. Vide Bollard's 
British Ladies, 86. 

t Catnden's Annals. Kennet, 383. Idem. 

|| Thomas Ratcliff or Radcliffe, third Earl of Sussex (not Essex, as given on p. 30 in the 
Literary Cabinet), was the uncle of Robert, fifth Earl. It seems doubtful, however, whether Robert 
is not the personage intended throughout these catalogues : especially as the first entry (p. 22) gives 
that name, which, being contemporary, is more likely to be correct. Moreover, he is here described 
as young and handsome, whereas Thomas, third Earl, had been dead ten years in 1593. the date 
given on p. 22. Robert, fifth Earl, on the other hand, succeeded to the title in 1593, at the age 
of about twenty-four. It is probable therefore that Pennant's historical comments are incorrect, 
applying to the uncle instead of to the nephew (M. F. S. H.). 

4 6 




Due d'AIua. 

approved the opinions they armed in favor of. He was the fpirited rival of Leicefter; but 
the death of Suffex left the event of their difpute undetermined. 

Leicefter, his antagonift, is here reprefented, in a three-quarter piece, dated 1587, with 
the collar of the garter, & a staff in his hand. 

A fine full length of the Duke of Mpnmouth, with long hair, in armour. 

SirNicholas A half length of Sir Nicholas Carew, master of the horfe to Henry VIII. There is 
vaft fpirit in his countenance. In his hat is a white feather ; his head is bound round with 
a gold ftuff handkerchief. He was beheaded in 1539, as Lord Herbert fays,* for being 
of council with the Marquis of Exeter, a favourer of the dreaded Cardinal Pole, then in 
Exile. During the time of his confinement in the Tower he imbibed the fentiments of 
the reformers, and died avowing their faith.t 

Killigrew, gentleman of the bedchamber to Charles II. in a red fafh, with his dog. 
A man of wit and humour; and on that account extremely in favor with the King. 

A good half length of M r Thomas Windham, drowned on the coaft of Guinea, aged 
42, MDL. a robuft figure, in green, with a red fafh, and gun in his hand. 

A three-quarter length, unknown, dated 1596, aged 43, dreffed in a ftriped jacket, blue 
and white ; black cloak & breeches, white ruff, gloves on, collar of the garter. 

Here are alfo fome illuftrious foreigners. A half length, infcribed Fernandez de Toledo, 
Duke of Alva, in rich armour, with his baton ; fhort black hair, and beard. A great officer, 
and fortunate till his reign of cruelty. He boafted, that he had caufed, during his command 
in the Low Countries, eighteen thoufand people to perifh by the executioner. He vifited 
England in the train of his congenial matter, Philip II. I imagine that this portrait was 
painted when the Duke was young; for I have feen one (fent into England by the late 
M r Benjamin Keen) now in poffeffion of the Bifhop of Ely, which reprefents him with 
a vaft flowing white beard. 

A three quarter length of Andreiv Doria, the great Genoefe Admiral, and patriot. He 
is dreffed in black, in a cap, a collar, with the fleece pendent; a truncheon in his hand, & 
a dagger in his girdle. View of fhips through a window. 

Garcia Sarmienta Curia; a full length, in armour; a ruff, red ftockings, white fhoes, 
a crofs on his breaft, a fpear in his hand. He was captain of the guard to Philip II. 

A three quarter length of a man in a fcarlet robe ; and over his left fhoulder a white 
mantle; a fcarlet cap tied in the middle, and open behind; a narrow white ruff; and 
a collar of the fleece. The fcarlet robe is furred with white : on it are feveral times 
repeated thefe words: Ah! amprins au ra jay! Oh! had I undertaken it! 

In the hall is a tablet, with the whole history of Liulphus, and his progeny, infcribed 
on a tablet, furrounded with the family arms ; and round the room feventeen pictures of 
his dependents, down to John Lord Lumley, who feemed to have a true veneration for his 
anceftors. Liulphus appears again in the kitchen, mounted on a horfe of full fize, & with 
a battle-ax in his hand. When James I. in one of his progreffes, was entertained in this 
caftle, William James, bifhop of Durham, a relation of the houfe, in order to give his 
majesty an idea of the importance of the family, wearied him with a long detail of their 
anceftry, to a period even beyond belief. O man, fays the king, gang na farther, let me 
digejl the knowledge I ha gained ; for, by my faul, I did na ken that Adam's name was 


Hist. Henry VI 1 1. 503. 

t Hollinfhead. 946. 



Albertus, Cardinal, of Austria, 25. 

Alerter!, Francois due d' (brother to Valois 

' last Kinge of Fraunce '), 22. 
Alva, Duke of, 25, 31, 32 (1557), 46. 
Andreas Auria : see Doria, Andrea. 
Anne Boleyn, 21. 
Argyle, Duke of, 35. 
Ariosto, 20, 25, 28. 
Arras, Anthony Grandville, Cardinal and Bishop 

of, 23. 
Arthur, Prince of Wales (eldest son of Henry 

VII), 22. 
Arundel, Anne Dacre (wife of Philip Howard), 

Countess of, 26. 

, Henry FitzAlan, Earl of, 22 (2), 23, 31, 

32, 35. 42. 

, Mary Arundell (2nd wife of Henry Fitz- 
Alan), Countess of, 26. 

, Philip Howard, Earl of, 23. 
Askott, Duke of, 25 (1583). 

Bacon, Sir Nicholas, 24. 

Bedford, John Russell ist Earl of, 23, 31 (2), 

35, 44- 

Berkeley, Countess of, 33. 

Blacket, Lady, 32. 

Boccaccio, 25 (Bocchas). 

Borough, Thomas de Burgh, Baron, 22 (in 
Garter robes). 

Bourbon, Duke of, 25. 

Braye, John, 2nd Baron, 24. 

Broughe, Thomas, Lord : see Borough, Baron. 

Browne, Sir Anthony, 24, 31, 40, 45. 

Browne, Anthony, son of foregoing : see Mon- 
tague, Viscount. 

' Buckenel the Scott ', 25. 

Buckingham, Duke of, 23, 30, 32, 34. 

Burghley, William Cecil, Lord, 24, 32, 33. 

Cabot, Sebastian, 25. 

Candishe (Cavendish), Thomas, 24. 

Carew, Sir Nicholas, 24, 31, 33, 40, 46. 

Cecil, William, 31. 

Charles V, Emperor of Spain, 24. 

Charles I, 32 (on horseback), 34. 

- II, 30 (on horseback), 33 (in armour). 
Charlotte, wife of George III, 34 (The QueenJ. 

Chaucer, Geoffrey, 25. 

Churchyard, Mr., 24. 

Clarence, Lionel, Duke of, 15 (statue of). 

Cleave, Haunce : see Van Cleef. 

Cleef, Van : see ditto. 

Cromwell, Thomas, 23. 

Dante, 25. 

Darcy of Chiche, Thomas, ist Baron, 22. 

i , Thomas, 3rd Baron, created Earl of 

Rivers, 23. 

, , Mary Kytson, Countess of Rivers, 

wife of ditto, 26. 
Darnley, Lord, and his brother, Charles Stuart, 


De la Marche, Count, 28. 

De Loyola, Ignatius, 25. 

De Poindre, Jacob, 19, 25 (2). 

De Roye, Phillip, 25. 

Doria, Andrea, 25 (Andrew Dore), 30, 32 

(Auria), 35 (Peter Patrice), 46. 
Dorset, Margaret Wotton (wife of Thomas 

Gray), Marchss. of, 26. 
Drake, Sir Francis, 24. 
Drury, Sir William, 24. 
Dflrer, Albert, 19, 23. 
Dyer, Edward, 24. 

Edmund (of Langley), Earl of Cambridge and 

Duke of York, 15 (statue of). 
Edward III (statue of), 15. 

- IV, 22. 

- VI, 21, 31, 32, 34, 42 (marble). 

- VI, as Prince of Wales, 15 (statue of), 22. 
Egmont, Count of, 25. 

Elizabeth (wife of Charles IX), 25. 

- Wydevile (wife of Edward IV), 25. 

- Plantagenet (wife of Henry VII), 22. 

, Queen, 15 (statue of), 22 (2), 30, 32, 42 

(statue of), 42 (painting). 
Erasmus, 24, 39. 
Essex, Frances Walsingham, Countess of, 26, 35. 

, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of, 23, 31, 

32. 35, 44- 
, Thomas Ratcliff, Earl of: see Sussex, 

Robert Radcliffe, Earl of. 
Eworth, Haunce, 15, 19, 24, 25, 26. 

4 8 


Ferdinand, Duke of Mar (sic), 30. 
Fisher, John, Bishop of Rochester, 23. 
Fliccus, Gerlach (or Flick), 19, 22 (2), 23. 
Floris, Frans, 19, 26, 27. 
Frederick, Prince of Wales, 33. 

Gabote, Sebastian : see Cabot. 
Garcia Sarmiento Cuna, 30, 34, 46. 
Garlick : see Fliccus. 
George-Augustus-Frederick, afterwards George 

IV, 34 (the Prince of Wales). 
Geraertez, Balthazar, 21, 25. 
Gloucester, Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of, 

15 (statue of). 

Grandville, Anthony : see Arras, 23. 
Grey of Wilton, Arthur, Lord, 23. 

, Lady Jane, 26. 

, - - Katherine, 26. 
Guildford, Sir Henry, 24, 39. 

, Lady (wife of ditto), 26, 39. 
Guise, Henri, Due de, 25. 

Halifax, Lady, 32. 

Hatton, Sir Christopher, 22. 

Haward ('a Dutch Juellor '), brother of Haunce 

E worth, 25. 

Hawkins, Sir John, 24. 
Heneage, Sir Thomas, 24. 
Henry Illrd Emperor (Henry V of Germany), 


- of Valois, King of France, 25. 

of Navarre, King of France, 21. 

- IV, 22, 25. 

- V, 22. 

- VI, 22. 
-VII, 22. 

-VII and Henry VIII, 21. 

-VIII, 15 (statue of), 21, 22, 33 (2), 42 

(statue of). 

Hertford, Katherine Grey, Countess of, 26. 
Hilliard, Nicholas, 27. 
Holbein, Hans, 19, 21 (2), 24 (3), 26, 27, 30, 32, 

33, 39- 

Home, Count de, 22 (in robes). 
Howard of Effingham, Lord Charles, 22. 

, Mrs. Ogle, 33. 
Hubbert (painter), 19, 23, 24 (2), 26. 
Huntingdon, Catherine Dudley (wife of Henry 

Hastings), Countess of, 26. 

Isabel, wife of Charles V (of Spain), 25. 
, daughter of Philip II (of Spain), 25. 

Jane, Queen (mother of Edward VI), 25. 
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, 15 (statue of). 
Julius II, Pope, 23. 
Julius Caesar, 24. 

Katherine of Arragon, Queen, 25. 

Parr, 5th wife of Henry VIII, 25. 

Kelly, Sir Edward, 24. 

Killigrew, Sir Thomas, 31 (2), 34, 46. 

Lasle, John (?John Leslie, or Lesley, Bishop 

of Ross (1527-1596)), 32. 
Leicester, Robert Dudley, Earl of, 22, 23 (2), 

30, 3 2 , 35, 4 6 - 

Lely, Sir Peter, 31, 33 (3), 34. 
Lennox, the Lady Margaret, 26. 
Lincoln, Elizabeth Girald (3rd wife of Edward 

Fines), Countess of, 26, 31 (miscalled Countess 

of Essex), 32 (1560), 35 (ditto), 44. 

, Henry Clinton, Earl of, 23. 

Lionel (of Antwerp), Duke of Clarence, 15 

(statue of). 

Lovell, Sir Thomas, 24. 
Loyola, Ignatius de, 25. 
' Lucios (?), the paynter ', 28. 
Lumley, Family Portraits, 21, 30, 32, 33, 34, 42. 

, Charles (son of John, Lord Lumley, died 

young), 21. 

, Hon. Charles, 33. 
- Children (Hon. Richard and Thomas), 33. 

, Elizabeth D'Arcy, 2nd wife of John, Lord 

Lumley, 21, 26, 42. 
, General, 32. 
, Lady Harriet, 33. 
, Hon. James, 33. 

, Jane FitzAlan, ist wife of John, Lord 
Lumley, 21, 26, 30, 32 (half-length), 34, 42, 45. 
-, John, Lord, 22 (in robes), 23, 30 (5), 32 

(half-length), 32 (in armour, 1588), 32 (in 
robes, 1591), 34 (1503),' 34 (in armour, 1588), 
34 (in robes), 42 (in armour), 45 (ditto), 45 
(in robes). 
, Hon. John, 33. 
j Mr., 32, 34. 
-, Ralph, 31 (1567), 32 (ditto). 

Lutterel, Sir John, 24. 
' Lyneux, the old Earle of ' (? Matthew Stuart, 
4th Earl of Lennox, Regent of Scotland), 23. 
Lyulphus, equestrian statue of, 34, 46. 

Maltravers, Henry, Lord, 23. 

Margaret of Anjou (wife of Henry VI), 25. 

1 This is a misprint in the Catalogue for 1563. 



Marlow, 33. 

Mary Medici, wife of Henry Bourbon, King of 

France, 26. 
Mary, Queen, 15 (statue of), 22, 30, 32, 42 

(statue), 42 (painting). 

, Queen of Scots, 25. 
Maximilian, Emperor, 24. 
Milan, Christina, Duchess of, 21, 39. 
Monmouth, Duke of, 30, 32, 34, 46. 
' Monseur" : see Alencon, due d'. 
Montague, Sir Anthony Browne, Viscount, 23. 

32, 35- 

Morley, Henry Parker, Lord, 23 (1523), 40. 
More, Sir Thomas, 19, 24, 31, 32, 34, 40, 44. 
Moro, Antonio, 19, 25. 
Mounteny, Count de, 22 (in robes). 

Norfolk, John Howard, ist Duke of, 23. 

, Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of, 23. 

, - , 3rd Duke of, 23. 

, - , 4th Duke of, 23. 

, Mary Fitzalan, Duchess of, 26. 
Northampton, Helen Suavenburgh, Marchioness 

of, 26. 

, William Parr, Marquess of, 23. 
Northumberland, Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of, 23 

Orange, William Nassau, Prince of, 21. 

, Princess of, 21. 
Oxford, Edward, Earl of, 22. 

Paracelsus, Theophrastus, 25, 31, 35, 44. 
Parma, Duke of, 25. 

, Duchess of, 21. 
Patrice, Peter : see Doria, Andrea. 
Pembroke, William Herbert, ist Earl of, 22. 
Peter, Sir John, 24, 31, 32, 35. 

, Sir William, 24, 30, 32, 35, 44. 
Petrarch, 25. 

Philip II, of Spain, 21, 22, 32, 33. 
Pindar, Jaques: see De Poindre. 
Poland, Stephen Batre, King of, 22, 25 (1583). 

, Sigismond, King of, 22. 
Pole, Cardinal, 23. 

Queen, The (Charlotte, wife of George III), 34. 

Raphael of Urbino, 25, 27, 42. 
Rembrandt, 33 (3). 

Richard 11, 22. 

- 111,22. 

Rich, Richard, ist Baron, of Leeze, 23. 
Richmond and Somerset, Henry Fitzroy, Duke 

of, 22. 

Richmond and Derby, Margaret, Countess of, 25. 
Rochester, John Fisher, Bishop of, 23. 
Rockingham, Marquis of, 34. 
Russell, John, Lord, 30. 

Salisbury, Robert Cecil, Earl of, 24, 30, 32, 45. 

, Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of, 26. 
Saunderson, Sir Thomas, 35. 
Saville, Sir George, 34. 
Savoy, Duke of, 25. 

, Duchess of, 25. 
Scarborough, Richard Lumley, ist Earl of, 32 (2). 

, Countess of, 34. 
Schorel, Jan, of Utrecht, 19, 27. 
Seigar (painter), 19, 23 (3), 24 (3). 
Sert, Duke of, 25. 

Seymour, Thomas, Baron, of Sudeley, 23. 
Sheffield, Edmund Sheffield, ist Baron, 23. 
Shelley, Edward, 24. 
Shore, Jane, 26. 
Shrewsbury, John Talbot, ist Earl of, 23. 

, Gilbert Talbot, ?th Earl of, 23. 

, Margaret Beauchamp(wife of JohnTalbot), 

Countess of, 26. 
-, Mary Cavendish (wife of Gilbert Talbot), 

Countess of, 26. 
Sidney, Sir Philip, 24. 
Somer, William, 25. 
Somerset, Anne Stanhope, Duchess of, 26. 

, Edward Seymour, ist Duke of, 23. 
Southampton, Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of, 23. 

, William FitzWilliams, Earl of, 23. 
'Steven' (the painter), 19 (Richard Stevens), 

23 (2), 2 5, 26, 30 (ditto). 
Stukeley, Sir Thomas, 25. 
Suffolk, Charles Brandon, ist Duke of, 23. 
Suffolk, Duke of, 30, 32, 34.' 
Surrey, Henry Howard, Earl of, 23 (miscalled 

Thomas), 31, 32 (1545), 35 (1545). 44- 

, Elizabeth, Countess of, 31.* 
Sussex, Robert Radcliffe, fifth Earl of, 22, 30, 

3 2 . 34. 45-' 

1 It is doubtful whether these entries refer to Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk (mentioned immediately above), or to 
Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk, executed in 1554, when the dukedom became extinct. In any case, the date 1593 given 
to the Duke of Suffolk on p. 30 seems to have been accidentally transferred ot course in the original list) from the preceding 
name, that of Sussex, to whom it rightfully belongs. (See note, p. 45. There was no Duke of Suffolk in 1593. 

1 Should be Elizabeth, Countess of Lincoln. 

* See note, p. 45. 




Thomas (of Woodstock), Duke of Gloucester, 

15 (statue of). 
Townsend, Lord, 35. 
Transylvania, Sigismund Batre, Prince of, 22 


Valois, Mast Kinge of Fraunce', brother to 
(Frangois, due d'Alengon (1554-1584)), 22. 
Van Cleef, 19, 26 (Van Cleave, Cornelius of 

Antwerp), 27 ('Haunce of Antwerpe ') 
Van Dyck, 32, 33 (3), 34. 
Velasquez, 34. 

Viglius, President, 25, 30, 32, 35. 
Vincent of Mechlin, 19, 27. 

Wales, The Prince of (George-Augustus- 
Frederick, afterwards George IV), 34. 

Walsingham, Sir Francis, 24. 

Warwick, Ambrose Dudley, Earl of, 23, 31, 32, 

Warwick, Anne Russell (3rd wife of Ambrose 

Dudley), Countess of, 26. 
Wentworth, Thomas, ist Baron, 23. 
Wilfourd, Sir James, 24. 
William of Hatfield, 15 (statue of). 
Willoughby, Peregrine, ist Lord (Peregrine 

Bertie, nth Lord Willoughby de Eresby), 23. 
Wilton, Arthur, i4th Baron Grey of, 23. 
Winchester, Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of, 23. 

, William Pawlet, Marquess of, 23. 
Winter, Sir William, 24. 
Wolsey, Cardinal, 23. 
Wyatt, Sir Thomas (the elder), 24, 39. 

, - - (the younger), 24. 
Wyndham, Mr. Thomas, 24, 31, 32, 35, 46. 

Xaverius, Franciscus, 25. 

York, Edmond of Langley, Duke of, 15 (statue 


Adam and Eve, 21. 

Adoration of the Shepherds, 33. 

Anchises and ^Eneas, 27. 

Aristotle, 16 (relief), 42. 

Babel, Building of, 27. 

Bride of Constantinople, 26. 

Charity, 27. 

Christ, 27 (various), 28, 42. 

Circumcision, 33. 

Cleopatra, 26. 

Constantine the Great, 42. 

Dives and Lazarus, 27. 

Evangelists, The Four, 27 (2). 

Fortune, ' The Ficlenes of, 27. 

George III, proceeding in State to the House 
of Lords, 33. 

Helen, Rape of, 19, 27. 

Hercules, 27, 42. 

Joseph and his Brethren, 27, 34. 

Judith and Holofernes, 27. 

Juno and Jupiter, 27. 

Lords, House of, The King (George III) pro- 
ceeding in State to, 33. 
Lucretia, 19, 26. 

Lumley, Lord John and his two Wives, Tomb 
of, 17. 

Mars and Venus, 42. 

Mary Magdalene, 26. 

Musician, A, 33. 

Noah, 27. 

Nun, A, 33. 

Old Man, Head of, 33. 

Passion of Christ, The, 27. 

Plato, 16 (relief), 42. 

Pompeia, 26. 

Richard II, delivering Writ to Ralph, ist 

Baron of Lumley, 21. 
Roche Abbey, View of, 34. 
Roman Emperors, 16, 41, 42. 
St. Anthony, Temptation of, 27, 34. 
St. Francis, 28. 
St. Jerome, 27. 
St. Paul, 27 (2). 
Saints, The, 28. 
Shepherds, Adoration of, 33. 
Time, 21, 42. 
Turk, The, 33. 
Venus and Adonis, 27. 
Virgin, The, 27. 
Worthies, The Nine, 27, 42. 
Zebedee and his family, 30, 32, 35. 




I:> i.go-1. during tl - of Mr. Lionel Gust, the National Portrait 

Gallery became possessed of -ation piece containing portraits o 1 

number of artists. Fortune utbts could arise as to the identity of the 

persons represented, as th had thoughtfully written the name eit: 

above or below each figure. The central and most conspicuous figure in 
group is that of Mr. Matthew Robinson, and it was from a descendant of t 
gentleman that the National Portrait Gallery acquired the picture. The foil- 
ing ' -'autirs of Engla -id and Wales (vol. viii. Kent, 1808) gi 

, si formation about Mr. Robinson, and proves that t! in 

the possession of his family <1t the time the note was written : 

'The Robinsons eby, in Yorkshire, and of Horton, in Kent, . 

Sir Leonard r son of Thomas, of Rokeby, was . . . knigh 

in 1692; and His only son, Thomas, of West 1 

Yorkshire, dying young, left <; son and heir, Matthew, afterwards, jure uxu 
of Horton in Kent. He was a gentleman of a most independent spirit, and 
very lively parts; though, from a to business, he never 

to any great degree in the active nffair- <>t'th<- world, but was extremely well 
received in'society. He was a mr posed of the most ir 

nious artists of his day, to commemorate v c as a society, a painting 

was executed, in 1735, by Hamilton, wlv nail whole figures of the 

following persons, some of which are here: Rysbrach, the 

Statuary; Dahl, the Portrait Painh idscape Painter; Veti 

and Baron, the Engravers ; Kent, the Improver of Grounds ; Gibbs, and Thomas. 
the Architects; Goupy, Bridgman, Huyssing, Hamilton, and M 1 . Robin 
himself, whose family are still in possession ot this picture. M r . R. v ,-ernely 

fond of company, which induced him to spend the latter part of his life in Lond 
where his morning drive, and his evening club, conducted his days serenely to 
the age of eighty-four, at which point he died in 1778.' (p. 1127.) 


Mr. Robinson holds a port-crayon in his right liand, whilst with his left he 
po o drawing held by Dahl. We ifer from this that it 

:ie is known to have been an accom; 
H 2 



IN 1904, during the directorship of Mr. Lionel Cust, the National Portrait 
Gallery became possessed of a conversation piece containing portraits of a 
number of artists. Fortunately no doubts could arise as to the identity of the 
persons represented, as the artist had thoughtfully written the name either 
above or below each figure. The central and most conspicuous figure in the 
group is that of Mr. Matthew Robinson, and it was from a descendant of this 
gentleman that the National Portrait Gallery acquired the picture. The follow- 
ing note in Brayley's Beauties of England and Wales (vol. viii, Kent, 1808) gives 
us some information about Mr. Robinson, and proves that the picture was in 
the possession of his family at the time the note was written : 

'The Robinsons of Rokeby, in Yorkshire, and of Horton, in Kent, . . . 
Sir Leonard Robinson, younger son of Thomas, of Rokeby, was . . . knighted 
in 1692; and he died in 1696. His only son, Thomas, of West Layton, in 
Yorkshire, dying young, left a son and heir, Matthew, afterwards, jure uxoris, 
of Horton in Kent. He was a gentleman of a most independent spirit, and 
very lively parts ; though, from a disinclination to business, he never engaged 
to any great degree in the active affairs of the world, but was extremely well 
received in society. He was a member of a club composed of the most inge- 
nious artists of his day, to commemorate whose existence as a society, a painting 
was executed, in 1735, by Hamilton, which contains small whole figures of the 
following persons, some of which are said not to exist elsewhere : Rysbrach, the 
Statuary ; Dahl, the Portrait Painter ; Wootton, the Landscape Painter ; Vertue, 
and Baron, the Engravers ; Kent, the Improver of Grounds ; Gibbs, and Thomas, 
the Architects ; Goupy, Bridgman, Huyssing, Hamilton, and M r . Robinson 
himself, whose family are still in possession of this picture. M r . R. was extremely 
fond of company, which induced him to spend the latter part of his life in London, 
where his morning drive, and his evening club, conducted his days serenely to 
the age of eighty-four, at which point he died in 1778.' (p. 1127.) 

Mr. Robinson holds a port-crayon in his right hand, whilst with his left he 
points to a landscape drawing held by Dahl. We may infer from this that it 
is Robinson's own drawing, as he is known to have been an accomplished 

H 2 


landscape painter. 1 He was the father of the famous Elizabeth Montagu, and 
several others of his children distinguished themselves in the literary world. 

The figures are grouped round Mr. Matthew Robinson in the following 
order, beginning on the left : 

1. George Vertue. 

2. Hans Huyssing, a Swedish portrait-painter. 

3. Michael Dahl (seated, holding the drawing in his left hand). 

4. William Thomas, an architect. 2 

5. James Gibbs, architect of the Radcliffe Library, Oxford, and of the Quad- 

rangle of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 

6. Joseph Goupy (immediately above Mr. Robinson the name written 

'J. Gouppy'). 

7. Charles Bridgman (or Bridgeman), who laid out the Serpentine and Ken- 

sington Gardens (inscribed ' Bridgman, Gar.'). 

8. Bernard Baron, a French engraver resident in London. (The original 

lettering, ' Barren ', can still be made out, but a restorer has tried to alter 
the name to ' Barret '.) 

9. John Wootton. (The original lettering was ' Wooton ', but the restorer has 

tried to alter it to ' Woollet '.) 

10. John Michael Rysbrack, the sculptor (lettered ' Rysbrac. St.'). 

11. The Painter of the picture. (No lettering.) 

12. William Kent, architect of the Horse-Guards and Treasury buildings, land- 

scape gardener, &c. 

Beyond the statement in the Beauties of England and Wales that the painting 
'was executed in 1735, by Hamilton ', nothing was known of the painter of this 
work. The painting, however, shows signs of marked ability. The heads have 
a great deal of character and individuality, and the hands, costumes and acces- 
sories are deftly touched, and worked up with unusual care and diligence. Some 
want of experience is noticeable in the arrangement of the figures those of 
Vertue, Goupy, and perhaps that of the artist himself, look like afterthoughts 
as indeed they were and the perspective is not beyond reproach. All these 
signs taken together lead one to suppose that the painter was a man of no 
mean skill, probably near the beginning of his career, and anxious in this work 
to display his powers and gain applause by his exertions. 

If the picture was painted in 1735 one would naturally expect to find 

1 The Letters of Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu, published by her nephew, Matthew Montagu, Esq., M.P., 
1810, p. 4. 

2 Vertue writing in 1732 (Add. MS. 23076, f. 36) mentions a William Thomas as 'steward to the 
Erl of Oxford ', whose head was modelled by Rysbrack. There was also a William Thomas, Archi- 
tect (fl. 1780-1799), of whom Redgrave says : ' He was a member of the celebrated Artists' Club,' no 
doubt confusing him with the earlier man. 


iiM OTii 

: n 1 "-/ "- "'* V ' > J y " T ' ' 

' 7 -<-- -- 

/*.'/- K^te^- 


(Enlarged from Folio 43, B. M. Add. MSS. 23076) 


something about the painter in Walpole, yet Hamilton's name is only once 
mentioned in the Anecdotes, and no information whatever is given about him. 
What makes this omission still more curious is that among the Vertue MSS., 
Irom which Walpole compiled his Anecdotes of Painting, a good deal of informa- 
tion is given about this artist and about the picture itself. Vertue knew Hamilton 
well, took a great interest in his career, and admired his talents. One can only 
speculate as to the reasons which prompted Walpole to ignore the painter. We 
do not know whether it was because Vertue considered Hamilton a serious rival 
to Hogarth, and frequently praised him at Hogarth's expense. All we know 
is that Walpole was an enthusiastic admirer of Hogarth, while Vertue, though 
forced sometimes to admit the cleverness of his work, disliked Hogarth 
intensely, being, if the truth were known, not a little jealous of his success as 
an engraver. 

Vertue's note about the portrait-group now in the National Portrait Gallery 
was written in 1734 or the early part of 1735, the last sentence about the result 
of the raffle being added after the raffle had taken place. It runs : 

' M r . Gawen Hamilton of the West of Scotland near Hamilton his paintings 
of Conversations small figures are agreable & much variety & correctness of 
mode & manner of the time & habits, he may well be esteemd a rival to 
Hogarth, having as much justness, if not so much fire, at least a small family 
peice of M r Wootons [painter] Family, particularly the figure of M r Wooton. is 
like, and is equal to any I have seen of Hogarth, and all the rest not inferior, 
in many respects. 

'But the peice of a Conversation of Virtuosi that usually meet at the Kings 
Armes. new bond street a noted tavern, is truely a Master peice as far as is done, 
truely shews him a Master of Art. the persons their represented, are ten. 

M r Dahl M r W m Thomas M r Gibbs 

M r Hysing M r Bridgman. Gardner M r Baron Engrav r 

M r Wooton M r Rysbrake Statuary M r Robinson a Gent. 

M r Kent Vertue Jos. Goupy. 

and. G: Hamilton pictor. f. 1735.' 

Here Vertue has made a slight sketch forming a key to the picture. (See 
Plate xvii.) The numbers correspond with those of the list of names underneath 
the sketch. He continues : 

'the proposition of this peece was to promote the Interest of M r Hamilton 
and to be done by Subscription 4 guineas each person to pay him. and when 
the picture is quite done to be raffeld for. 'twas raffled for on 15 April 1735. 
and won by M r Joseph Goupee 40. hieghest Numb r thrown. 

and sd since sold by him the Prince of Wales.' 

(B.M. Add. MS. 23076, f. 43.) 


It is doubtful whether the rumour Vertue mentions, that Goupy sold the 
picture to his patron, Frederick, Prince of Wales, was correct. According to 
Walpole, the picture was included in the sale of Goupy's collection in March, 
1765. Among the pictures in the sale, says Walpole, 'there was a piece in oil 
by Hamilton with portraits of several artists '. If we are correct in assuming 
this piece to be the picture in which we are now interested, it is highly probable 
that it was bought at that sale by Mr. Matthew Robinson. It may be remarked, 
in passing, that, contrary to the general belief, Joseph Goupy's sale was held 
during his lifetime, and not after his death. Walpole, of course, is hopelessly 
wrong over the date of Goupy's death, having confused him with his uncle 
Louis or Lewis. It will be seen from Vertue's note that his own figure and 
that of Goupy were actually added to the group, not being included in the 
original scheme of ten figures. Lastly, Hamilton added his own portrait, but 
forbore modestly to put his name to it. 

Vertue's first reference to Hamilton was written about June, 1732. Vertue 
himself was a little man, and he observes that ' the most elevated men in Art 
here now are the lowest of Stature ' and proceeds, in support of this opinion, to 
give a list of names among which occur ' M r Hogarth Painter ' and ' M r Hamilton 
Painter '. He adds : ' these Gent, are five foot men or Less.' He then 
goes on to speak of ' a family peice of the present Earl of Strafford himself his 
Lady, his son and daughters in the Conversation manner, the dispo(si)tion 
genteel & agreeable the Countenances like & freely pencilld, draperys Silks. 
& decorations, well toucht & disposd. upon the whole, this is esteemd a master 
peace of M r Hamiltons painting, who (? as) much like Hogarths works as can 
be. & this he did for Reputation being the Earls great generosity to give him ten 
guineas only for it.' (Id. f. 38.) l 

The Earl of Strafford here referred to was Thomas Wentworth, the third 
Earl (or rather, the first Earl of the second creation), who died in 1739. He 
married, in 1711, Anne, daughter of Sir Henry Johnson, by whom he had one 
son and three daughters, Anne, Lucy, and Harriet, who all appear in the group. 
William, the youngest of the children, born in 1722, succeeded, on his father's 
death, to the title, and two years later he married Lady Anne Campbell, daughter 
of the second Duke of Argyll. The picture now belongs to Captain Bruce 
Vernon- Wentworth. Mr. R. W. Goulding has kindly informed me that he saw 
it at Wentworth Castle in 1911, and that it is signed 'G. Hamilton '. 

Vertue's last note about Hamilton was written in 1737: 

'The end of October 1737. dyd M r Gawen Hamilton painter he excelld all 
others (crossed through) in his Time in England for peices of Conversations 

Among the Strafford Papers in the British Museum are preserved many receipts for payments 
made by this Earl of Strafford, but I have searched them in vain for Hamilton's receipt. 


(From a rare print belonging to Mr. A. J. Fiitbrrg) 


family peices small figures from the life in their habits and dress of the 
Times well disposd gracefull and natural easy actions suteable to the characters 
of the persons and their portraitures well toucht to the likenes and air, a free 
pencill good colouring and ornamented or decorated in a handsom grand manner, 
every way suteable to people of distinction it was much the opinion of many 
Artists of painting and Sculpture, that he had some peculair excellence wherein 
he out did M r Hogarth in Colouring and easy gracefull likeness, what ever has 
been done heretofore in England by other former masters he seems to have 
more merit, or if the modes of dress please better now than those formerly, 
wee can't say, and whether time will take away these (? the) pleasure of these 
performances when the modes of habits are changed, time will discover, however 
wee still like many of those conversations done above a hundred years ago 
by Teniers Brower Breugil Watteau and some of those flemish masters of the 
Schoolars of Rubens Vandyke, and indeed some painters lately here, have 
studyed that pencilling touching manner, with great Succes. and freedom of 
composition, which is likely to carry a merrit with it of a lasting duration. 

' M r Hamilton [his first begining was under .... Wilson ' who painted fowles 
birds of no great reputation, afterwards was auctioneer.] in his last 8 or 10 years of 
his life got great forwardnes & reputation in this manner for which he was in 
the right to leave portrait painting as big as the life, wherein he woud never 
been able to have distinghuished himself in that superior degree, he had but 
a short illness from a Cold he being on S' Lukes night at the Clubb and Suppd. 
there, the following week was taken ill. and dyd in 8 days of a Feavour 
Saturday 28 of October 1737 he was buried in S' Pauls church yard Covent 
Garden, near where he liv'd several years before he died, aged near forty.' 

(Id. f. 48.) 

With the aid of these notes it is clearly established that Chaloner Smith 
confused one of Gawen Hamilton's works with those of the later and better- 
known Gavin Hamilton. In his British Mezzotint Portraits he ascribes that of 
Thomas Pocock (Plate xvm) to Gavin Hamilton, who, according to the informa- 
tion given in Mr. Caw's Scottish Painting, was born in 1723. The portrait 
of Pocock was engraved by J. Faber, jun., in 1726. It cannot therefore 
be by Gavin Hamilton, and if we compare it with some of the heads in the 
group of artists, there can be little doubt that it is by the earlier Gawen. 
Thomas Pocock was the father of Sir George Pocock, the famous admiral ; he 
was Chaplain at Greenwich Hospital, and died in 1744. The name of the artist 
is given on the print as ' Gavs Hamilton ', obviously an abbreviation of a 
latinized form 'Gavinius', which might stand for either 'Gavin' or 'Gawen'. 

' No further information has been found about this artist. 


The two names must be closely allied, and ' Gavin ' at least is quite common in 

Another instance of confusion between the two painters is to be found in 
the case of a portrait of Susannah, Countess of Eglinton, lent to the National 
Portrait Exhibition, 1867, by the Reverend W. K. R. Bedford. It was exhibited 
as by Gavin Hamilton, but as the Countess was born in 1689 an ^ this portrait 
shows her as a woman of about thirty, it is probably by Gawen. The picture 
is not a good one, if one may judge by an imperfect photograph, and the style 
is not in the least like that of Gavin Hamilton. The same point may be 
raised in connexion with a second portrait of the Countess which is at Eglinton 
Castle. This is included by Mr. Caw 1 among the works of Gavin Hamilton 
painted about 1755, at which time the Countess would have been sixty -six years 
old. It depicts her, however, as a charming young lady in peeress's robes, and 
was probably painted before the death of her husband in 1729. It is reproduced 
in Scottish Portraits, 1902-3 (LXVI). 

Sdguier, in his Dictionary of Painters, seems to have fallen into the same 
trap. Writing of Gavin Hamilton, he says : ' Independently of his large works 
and his classical pictures, Gavin Hamilton sometimes painted cabinet pictures ; 
for instance, interiors of rooms, with small portraits, in the manner of Hogarth. 
Although brown and sombre in colour, yet there is a great deal of humour and 
character in the heads.' It is evident that Seguier had seen some conversation 
pieces by ' Hamilton '. The colour of our group of artists, however, could 
hardly be called ' brown and sombre '. 

Before leaving the subject of Hamilton's works, reference must be made to 
a painting attributed to Hogarth, now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 
which is apparently related to the National Portrait Gallery picture. It is 
described in J. B. Nichols's A necdotes of Hogarth, 1839, as ' Portraits of a Society 
of Artists that existed about 1730. This sketch in oil was in the possession of 

the late firm of Boydell & Company and is now in the possession of 

Chambers Hall Esq. of Southampton.' It was bequeathed by Chambers Hall 
to the University in 1855, and is reproduced in the illustrated Catalogue of His- 
torical Portraits, Oxford, 1906. The attribution to Hogarth, however, is open 
to question. Nichols's Anecdotes have no critical authority, and his mention of 
this picture merely proves that it was attributed by its owner in 1839 to 

The group is composed of fifteen figures, eight of which can be identified 
by numbers corresponding with a list of names inscribed on the picture. Five 
of the eight Rysbrack, Kent, Hamilton, Dahl, and Bridgman arc old friends. 
A sixth figure is named ' Gibbons ', but as Mrs. Poole has pointed out (Oxford 

1 Scottish Painting, Past and Present, 1908, p. 37. 


Portraits, 1912) no artist of this name is known who was living in 1730. It 
seems more than likely that the name was originally ' Gibbs ', and that it has 
been altered during a process of repainting such as that undergone by the names 
on the National Portrait Gallery picture. The two other names are ' Laroon ' 
and ' Vanderbank ', whilst the remaining seven figures are anonymous. One of 
them, however, is evidently an important person. He sits in a chair in the 
foreground of the picture in very much the same position as that occupied by 
Mr. Robinson in Hamilton's group. Indeed the whole scheme of the Oxford 
picture, although differing in several details, is so curiously like our 'Artists' 
Club in 1735', that one may venture to suggest that it was perhaps Hamilton's 
first sketch for his picture. Vertue frequently mentions Captain Laroon and 
John Vanderbank as members of his circle, and it may well be that Hamilton 
originally intended them to figure in the projected group, but could not induce 
them to sit. 

In conclusion, a further quotation from Vertue will throw some light on the 
club frequented by Mr. Robinson and his friends : 

' as I have for so many years, made Observations on the works of the most 
eminent & remarkable Artists in their several kinds of works in London, so 
I have spent no little Time to be acquainted with them, in all Parts of the Town 
especially, and at many several times & places, to see their works. & hear the 
sentiments of all persons any wayes allowed to be judges, thereby to get 
a better conception of their real merrit as this has been some loss of time, also, 
the costs or expences to get into companys conversations Clubbs, has been 
a continual expence. not sparing the best & most expensive, besides the Rose 
& Crown Clubb so many years and also the Tiptop Clubb of all, for men of 
the highest Character in Arts & Gentlemen Lovers of Art calld the Clubb of 
S' Luke originally of which was S r Ant. Vandyke [the founder] S r Peter Lilly 
-Riley Verrio Kneller Dhall.Wren Closterman & the present Set of Artists. 
& Lovers, of the best reputation living, now still in highest esteem 

' Yet for all this, there are Some Capital Artists, that I have mist, and has 
not fell in my way to be known to. but few indeed between 1710. to this present 
year. 1744.' 

(Add. MS. 23079, f. 30.) 

We may take it then that it was at the ' Tiptop ' Club of St. Luke that 
Gawen Hamilton supped on the night when he caught his fatal cold, and that it 
is the members of this club who figure on his canvas. Redgrave mentions that 
Charles Bridgman, who 'about 1735 was the fashionable designer of gardens 

was a member of the S' Luke's Artists' Club ', but I do not know the 

source of his information. 

The Rose and Crown Club probably had its meetings at the old Rose and 

VI. I 


Crown Tavern in Crown Street, Soho. Its members, the ' Rosa-Coronians ' as 
Vertue calls them, were painted in 1724 by John Smibert. The group has been 
described and sketched by Vertue (Add. 23076, f. 18), who figured in it with 
Smibert, Wootton, Thomas Gibson, and several other painters and musicians. 
Although painted, no doubt, in a less capable manner, it would make an interest- 
ing pendant to Gawen Hamilton's 'Artists' Club'. We will hope therefore that 
it is still in existence and will some day be traced. 



ONE does not as a rule act upon the cynical epigrammatic principle borrowed 
by Benjamin Disraeli from an earlier writer to the effect that the best way to get 
up a subject of which you are ignorant is to write about it. An exception to that 
rule is presented by the subject of early art in Liverpool, because, in confessing 
that my knowledge about it is sadly inadequate, I have to add that I don't know 
of any one who is better informed. The bank of fog which rests upon the whole 
field of early British art is nowhere more dense than in this region. The 
history of Liverpool has more than once been written, and its antiquity has been 
consecrated by the sept-centenary celebrations held in 1907, but we still know 
very little about it before the eighteenth century, and literally nothing about its 
art history, although one book was produced about fourteen years ago which 
purported to deal with the subject. I propose here, while stating what I know, 
to employ myself chiefly in indicating what I do not know, in order to show the 
difficulties attending an attempt to master this little corner of our art history, 
and with the hope that fellow students in related fields may possibly be able to 
help me to fill out my sadly meagre outline. 

Art-workers of some kind there must have been in Liverpool in the seven- 
teenth century, in connexion with the decoration of the potters' wares which 
were then an important product of the town. Their skill in landscape was 
apparently small, if we may judge it on the evidence of a plaque (20 x 31 inches) 
bearing 'A West Prospect of Great Crosby' in 1716, which, according to that 
careful and learned antiquary, Joseph Mayer, is the earliest known ' authentic 
piece of English ware '. He found evidence that Liverpool was a producing 
centre of such goods in 1674, and its potteries were among the first in this 
country. There were also engravers on copper. In 1888, when the first con- 
ference of the National Association for the Advancement of Art was held here, 
I contributed to its deliberations a paper on the Art History of Liverpool, in 
which I suggested that the attention paid to art in the town was perhaps due in 
a measure to the influence of the potteries, and I still think so. I there set out 
at more length than is necessary here some interesting details of the history 
of our potteries, and also other scraps of information about art happenings which 
I had gleaned as the result of an extended examination of old newspapers and 
other ephemeral publications. 

I 2 


I have found nothing to show definitely that before 1769 there was any 
attempt at organization among the artists, although there were artists in the town, 
or connected with it. Old rate-books, so far back as 1705-8, give us glimpses 
of such unknown men as Isaac Le Groates (or Legrote) of Redcross Street, 
and Edward Clifton of Rosemary Lane, both described as limners. The latter, 
according to the register of St. Nicholas's Church, was buried January 29, 1714. 
The register of St. Peter's Church preserves the name of John George, a limner, 
whose wife Mary was buried May 25, 1757 ; and in that of St. George's we 
find mention of Thomas Rothwell, enamel painter, in connexion with the baptism 
on January 13, 1761, of his daughter Lucy, born December 14, 1760. According 
to an obituary notice in Billinge's Liverpool Advertiser, February 2, 1807, Rothwell 
died at Birmingham in January 1807, aged 65. The birth of a daughter in 1760 
suggests that the age was understated. He is described as an engraver and 
enamel painter. In St. Peter's register I have also found the names of two 
engravers, Jeremiah Evans (1760) and William Sutton (1763). Of all these 
worthies nothing is known. Two notable Liverpool men born early in the 
eighteenth century may conveniently be referred to first, as there is nothing 
to show that they had any connexion with local artistic movements. 

i. RICHARD WRIGHT, F.S. A., sometimes described as ' Wright of Liverpool ' 
and sometimes as ' Wright of the Isle of Man ', of whom I know very little. He 
is said to have been born in Liverpool in 1735, and to have been trained as 
a house and ship painter. Without education he succeeded in becoming a com- 
petent painter of pictures. I have not traced any Liverpool address. In 1762 
Wright began to exhibit at the 'Society of Artists' Exhibition, his picture being 
' A View of the Storm when the Queen was on her passage to England, painted 
from a sketch, drawn on board the Fubbes yacht'. This is at Hampton Court 
Palace : no. 889 in Ernest Law's Historical Catalogue (1898). Wright continued 
to exhibit regularly at the ' Society of Artists ' until 1773, showing in all twenty- 
seven pictures. He became a member in 1771 and a director in 1772. 

According to Mr. Algernon Graves, Wright showed one picture at the Free 
Society Exhibition in 1764, 'A Seapiece, with a squall of rain'. Appended is 
a note : 'The first premium (thirty guineas) for the present year.' In Anecdotes 
of Painters, by Edward Edwards (1808), it is stated that 'in 1764 the Society for 
the Encouragement of Arts, &c., offered a premium to the person who should 
produce the best picture of a sea view, being his own production, when Mr. Wright 
became a candidate and obtained the first prize, thirty guineas. In the years 
1766 and 1768 he again became a candidate, under the same class of premiums, 
and each year obtained the first prize, fifty guineas. In the first of these pictures, 
Mr. Wright paid a compliment to the Society by introducing an allusion to their 
encouragement of the scheme for supplying the metropolis with fish, by the 
means of land carriage '. In a note Edwards identifies this picture as the one 


engraved by William Woollett (1768) with the title ' The Fishery ' (Plate xxiv (b)). 
It is now in the Liverpool Gallery, my Committee having on my recommenda- 
tion purchased it in 1914 from the owner. It will be seen from the illustration 
that the allusion to land-carriage was a covered cart in waiting to receive fish 
from boats. Woollett's print is said to have been copied in two sizes by a French 
engraver, who attributed the original to Vernet. I have not seen a copy of this 
pirated publication. 

Some time before his death, according to Edwards, Wright made an exhi- 
bition of his pictures at York during the race week. The result was disappointing, 
so much so that according to our chronicler, with the aid of a violent cold, it 
' hurried him to his grave '. He adds that he was also adversely affected by the 
death of his son, 'a very promising and well-behaved youth, who painted in the 
same line with the father'. This youth was aged about twenty. Mrs. Wright 
and her daughters also practised art, painting still-life and fruit-pieces. It is 
a pretty safe inference that the son was Edward Wright, who showed nine 
pictures at the Society of Artists from 1769 to 1773. Mr. Graves, from whom 
I cull this information, credits him with a marine subject shown at the Free 
Society in 1782, but this is probably a wrong ascription (it is a rare pleasure 
to catch Mr. Graves napping) if the son, as stated, predeceased his father, 
who died, according to Bryan, 'about 1775': Edwards says 'before 1775'. 
E. Wright's address was 'at Mr. Wright's, Pimlico', and Richard's address 
from 1767 was 'Near King's Road, Pimlico'. Before that he was at Craven 
Street (1763), Craven Buildings, Strand (1764), and Orange Court, Leicester 
Fields (1765). 

Mrs. Richard Wright (Louisa) exhibited still-life (thirteen pictures) at the 
Society of Artists from 1770 to 1777. After her husband's death she removed 
to 29 Marsham Street, Westminster. Miss Elizabeth Wright began to exhibit 
in 1773 and continued to do so until 1776, showing seven landscapes in all. On 
the removal of her mother from the Pimlico house, Elizabeth and she seem to 
have parted company, as in 1775 the former was 'at Mr. Stubbs', 24 Somerset 
Street, Portman Square'. Next year she was at Mr. Ralph's, Millman Row, 
Chelsea. It is of interest in the present connexion to find the Wright family in 
touch with the famous George Stubbs, President of the Society of Artists, as he 
also was of Liverpool origin. Mr. Graves attributes to Elizabeth an exhibit in 
1783, 'A Head; in needlework', shown by 'Miss E. Wright, at Mr. Thomas 
Wright's, 6, in the Poultry ', but I am pretty sure this was a different person. 
On the other hand I think a Miss Wright, ' Near the King's Road, Pimlico ', 
who exhibited a landscape in 1772 and a fruit-piece in 1773, must have been 
Elizabeth, though Mr. Graves gives her a place apart ; if not, it was an elder 

Among the many Wrights who have shown at the Royal Academy Exhibi- 


tion, the only one who seems to have any possible connexion with our subject is 
Miss Elizabeth Wright, who showed two landscapes in 1825, when her address 
was 6 Norfolk Street, Fitzroy Square. In 1829 a Miss Wright (Mrs. in the 
index) at the same address contributed a landscape, and in the following year 
another. Her address was then 38 London Street. I think this was possibly 
Richard's daughter, though I am not able to account for her long disappearance. 
Richard never exhibited at the Royal Academy. 

- I have devoted a good deal of space to somewhat trivial detail because it is 
from such slight indications that we may be able, if at all, to construct a fuller 
account of this artist's life. There only remains to be added the concluding 
paragraph of Edwards's note, an outline as slight and unsatisfying as Hogarth's 
profile of Fielding, and yet, like it, a valuable clue to better knowledge of the 
man : 'Mr. Wright was of rough manners and warm temper, which led him to 
take an active lead among the discontented part of the chartered Society of 
Artists, in which he acted with great impropriety and imprudence, and, with 
one or two more of the members, was chiefly instrumental in overturning the 

2. GEORGE STUBBS. This pioneer of animal painting in England (if we 
except John Wootton) was born in Liverpool on August 24, 1724, a little more 
than a year after the birth of Reynolds. It will suffice to give a mere outline of 
his career, as the subject has been already dealt with by Joseph Mayer (who 
based his Notes for a Memoir on a manuscript by William Upcott), also by the 
late Sir Walter Gilbey, Bart, in a 'Life' published in 1898. I refer also to my 
own contributions on the subject to Bryan's Dictionary (vol. v, p. 139, 1905) and 
to the Art Journal for 1904, p. 12 et seq. The father of Stubbs was a currier and 
leather-dresser, and he intended that his son should follow in his footsteps. The 
youth, however, was interested only in drawing and anatomy, and his father 
did not oppose him, but advised him to seek out the best master he could find. 
Soon after this the father died, leaving his widow in easy circumstances. 

George selected as a master Hamlet Winstanley, a Warrington artist twenty- 
four years older than himself, a pupil of Kneller, but, on the evidence of such of 
his productions as I have seen, not a very brilliant painter. Winstanley was 
much employed about Knowsley Hall, the seat of the Earl of Derby, and Stubbs 
was set to work making copies, receiving in exchange instruction and a shilling 
a day pocket-money. A quarrel terminated this connexion, which had given 
Stubbs so strong a distaste for copying pictures that he resolved never again to 
do anything of the sort, but to ' look into Nature for himself, and consult and 
study her only '. 

At about twenty years of age Stubbs removed to Wigan and thence to Leeds, 
where he set up as portrait-painter. Next he went to York, where he found 
means to study anatomy, and did so to such purpose that soon he was employed 


in giving private lectures to the hospital students. Having made some drawings 
to illustrate a projected work on obstetrics by a friend, Stubbs was unable to 
get an engraver to reproduce them, so he taught himself to engrave on copper. 
From York he went to Hull, and in 1754, after a visit to Liverpool, he went to Italy 
to see if its art treasures would support his opinion that Nature is superior to 
all Art. Having settled this point to his entire satisfaction he returned home and 
remained at his mother's house until her death about the year 1756. He then left 
his native city and apparently never returned to it. The fact that his illegitimate 
son, George Townley Stubbs, an -excellent engraver, was born in 1756 suggests 
a possible reason, in connexion with the close companionship for life that thence- 
forward subsisted between Stubbs and Miss Mary Spencer, who is sometimes 
described as his niece and sometimes as his aunt. I have no evidence that she 
was related to him. The register of St. Peter's Church records that Mary, 
daughter of George Stubbs, limner, was buried on September 18, 1759. I am 
unable to throw any light on her identity. For four years Stubbs dwelt in a 
lonely farm-house in Lincolnshire, where he laboured unceasingly at the anato- 
mical studies which resulted in his monumental work on the Anatomy of the 
Horse. When Stubbs arrived in London in 1760 ready for its publication, he 
was unable to find an engraver who would undertake the mechanical part of 
reproducing his drawings, so he undauntedly set to work and engraved the 
plates in his late evening and early morning hours. The work was published in 
1766, and its value was at once recognized. From 1761 Stubbs had been an 
exhibitor, chiefly of portraits of horses, at the Society of Artists Exhibition. Of 
this society he was a member in 1765, treasurer in 1772, president in 1773, and 
director in 1774. Although much admired by, and friendly with, Reynolds, he 
was not one of those who combined to form the Royal Academy. After the 
1774 exhibition of the Society of Artists he ceased to send to its exhibitions, and 
he made his first appearance at the Royal Academy in the following year with 
four portraits of a horse, two dogs, and a monkey. Thereafter he was a fairly 
regular exhibitor until 1803. In 1780 he was elected A.R.A. and in the following 
year a full member, but some hitch occurred (probably over the rule as to the 
deposit of a diploma picture) and the election was annulled. The addresses of 
Stubbs in various catalogues are (i) Somerset Street, opposite North Audley 
Street, 1764; and (2) 24 Somerset Street, Portman Square, 1775. For many 
years Stubbs pursued his energetic career with ample success, and his active 
mind continually prompted him to fresh experiments. At the instigation of 
Cosway he experimented in the production of pictures painted in enamel colours 
on china or earthenware plates made by Wedgwood. Some of these were so 
badly treated in the Royal Academy Exhibition of 1782 that he did not send 
again until 1786, and this may have been one of the factors in the trouble about 
his membership. Some of these plaques are extant, their colour as brilliant as 


at first, and it is easy to understand that the hangers of 1782 offended, not 
through prejudice or ill will, but because this brilliancy made it difficult to place 
them with oil paintings on canvas. In 1790 Stubbs commenced a series of 
portraits of celebrated racers which were to be engraved and published. Through 
lack of support this series was discontinued after sixteen had been produced. 
When over seventy years of age Stubbs commenced another great work, 
A Comparative Anatomical Exposition of the Human Body, with that of a Tiger 
and a common Fowl. This he completed, but he died on July 10, 1806, when 
only half of it had been published. His death was sudden, probably from 
angina pectoris : on the previous day he had walked eight or nine miles without 
fatigue; and shortly before, he was able to walk sixteen miles, carrying a 

In his prime Stubbs enjoyed great physical strength, and was able to carry 
a dead horse up two or three flights of stairs to his dissecting-room ! He was 
buried in Marylebone Church, and Miss Spencer inherited all his property. 
Many of his works were engraved by Woollett, Earlom, Val Green, Hodges, 
Murphy, Townley-Stubbs, &c. His ' Gentleman holding a Horse ' is in the 
National Gallery, his ' Lion and Lioness' and 'Goose with outstretched wings' 
are in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and in the Liverpool Gallery are ' The 
Racehorses of King George III ', ' Horse and Lioness', 'Horse frightened by 
a Lion', 'Lion and Dead Tiger' (on Wedgwood panel), and 'The Frightened 
Horse' (Wedgwood white relief on blue); also portraits by Ozias Humphry, 
R.A. (pastel) and Richard Caddick (oil). The pictures of Stubbs are not often 
seen, as they are for the most part in private collections at great houses. 
Sir Walter Gilbey had a great many : the catalogue of his sale on June n, 
1915, contained twenty-seven examples. Some of these are among our illus- 
trations. 1 Gilbey's book on Stubbs gives particulars of 116 pictures in various 

1 Five pictures by Stubbs from the Gilbey sale are here illustrated : No. 406, Portrait of 
Warren Hastings on Horseback, 1791, from the Artist's Sale (No. 68), Plate xix ; No. 394, Hay- 
makers, and No. 395, Hay-Carting, Plate xx ; No. 387, The Haymakers, and No. 388, The Reapers, 
both exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1786, Plate xxi. The four latter subjects are reproduced 
from photographs kindly supplied by Messrs. Thomas Agnew and Son. Two of these are now 
the property of Lord Leverhulme, who has also kindly allowed the reproduction of the equestrian 
portrait of Wedgwood. 

I had a good opportunity to study these paintings at the time of the sale. The two enamel 
paintings on china tablets (Plate xx) struck me as particularly delightful productions. They have 
much of the purity and freshness of early Italian wall paintings. As illustrations of the rise of the 
modern naturalistic school of painting, and as superb examples of the work of a wonderfully gifted 
and original English artist, I should have liked to see them secured for our National Gallery. 
Why the authorities took no steps to secure at least one of them I do not know. The prices they 
realized at the sale were not exorbitant. 

The fine equestrian portrait of Warren Hastings was promptly secured by Lord Curzon for the 



Oval, 34 ! X 25 \ in. Enamel fainting on china tabl.'t 

Bought fry Earl Cureoii of Kedlestoii, at Sir Walter Gilb;) f s Salt, for the Victoria Mmiorial Hall, Calcutta 



Enamel painting on china tabltl manufacturtd by Wedgwood 
Oval, a8S x 39] in. {Gilbty Sale, No. 394) 
In the Collection of Lord Leverlntlme 

Enamel painting OH china tablet 
Oval, 28} x 39 j in. (Gilbey Sale, No. 395) 
In the Collection of Lord Lcverhulme 


On panel. 36 x 54 in. ( Gilbey Sale, No. 387) 

Panel, 36 x 54 in. (Gilbey Sale, No. 388) 


Oval, 36 x 27 ', in. Enamel painting on china tablet 
In the Collection of Lord Ltveihulmi 






















O S 

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o uj 

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Having disposed of two rather notable men who are slightly known to the 
outer world of art, I now turn to the group of artists who, dwelling in Liverpool, 
tried to establish an Art Society here, incited, no doubt, to this expression of 
their needs by the contagious influence of the Royal Academy's foundation 
in 1768. In the following year an Academy Room was rented at 30 John 
Street, and the association which met there had P. P. Burdett as president, and 
twenty-one other members. The list of members given by Mayer is the first 
authentic list of Liverpool Artists. I append to the names the scant particulars 
I have in regard to some of them. 

i. PETER PEREZ BURDETT, F.S.A., President. I take the baptismal names 
from Graves's account of the Society of Artists. In the list of members (p. 323) 
he is described as an Honorary Fellow. He was a capable artist, as appears 
from his 'View of the Custom House', engraved for Enfield's Liverpool (1773). 
Mayer describes him as an engraver and drawing master. W. Bemrose in his 
Life and Works of Joseph Wright (1885) has a number of references to Burdett, 
who was at one time resident in Derby and intimate with Wright. From this 
source I learn that Burdett played the violoncello, that he published a map of 
Derbyshire in 1767, and was used as a model in at least two of Wright's pictures, 
viz. 'The Orrery' (Plate xxin), exhibited 1766, probably painted three years 
earlier, in which he is the person making notes, and the earlier ' Gladiator ' 
picture in which Burdett and Laurence Rowland (1757-73), son of Earl Ferrers, 
are the two boy spectators. Earl Ferrers bought 'The Orrery' and Burdett was 
in some unexplained way mixed up in the transaction. The price was ^210, of 
which 50 was paid in cash, and for the balance a joint bond dated July n, 1763, 
was given to Wright by the Earl and Burdett. It is quoted verbatim by 
Mr. Bemrose, and apparently the balance of 160 was to be liquidated by a 
payment of /So with interest. English law deeds of the eighteenth century are 
beyond the comprehension of a layman, so I may be mistaken. Apparently the 
money was to be paid by Burdett, because in 1774 Wright wrote from Rome to 
his brother : ' He has not paid a farthing of principal or interest of the fourscore 
pounds his Lordship was bound for, which I lent him in the year '60 or '61.' 
Burdett is described in the deed as ' Peter Pery (sic) Burdett of Stanton Herald 
in the County of Leicester, Gentleman ', which seems to negative the conjecture 
that he was a native of Derby. He evidently devoted a good deal of time to 
chartography, as in addition to the map of Derbyshire already mentioned he 
produced maps of Cheshire and Lancashire, and in reference to the map of 
Leicestershire by J. Whyman in Gough's British Topography there is a note to 

Victoria Memorial Hall at Calcutta. It was an admirably chosen purchase, made with Lord 
Curzon's usual promptness and decision. I have to thank his Lordship for the courteous permission 
he has given to reproduce this portrait. ED. 

VI. K 


the effect that ' Whyman was assistant to Mr. Burdet (sic) '. For the Derby- 
shire survey Burdett received ^100 (or guineas) in 1768 from the Society of 
Arts. At the Society of Artists Exhibition in 1770 he showed (as an honorary 
exhibitor) two 'teinted' drawings of architectural subjects and in 1771 another 
architectural view. In 1772, being then F.S.A., he showed 'An etching in 
imitation of a Wash Drawing', as well as 'An etching from a design of 
Mr. Mortimer'. The first of these may, I think, have been a very early 
aquatint (the invention of Le Prince dates from 1768) as in 1773 Burdett 
exhibited ' The effect of a stained drawing attempted by printing from a plate 
wrought chemically, without the use of any instrument of sculpture '. After this 
Burdett did not exhibit again and I have no further trace of him. I shall refer 
to him again in connexion with his status as an inventor of aquatint engraving. 
His 'Children, with boy blowing bladder, by candlelight ', after Joseph Wright 
of Derby, according to a manuscript inscription on a copy in the Liver- 
pool Public Library, was the ' First specimen of aquatinta invented in Liverpool 
by P. P. Burdett, 1774, assisted by Mr. S. Chubbard '. Oddly enough 
J. Chaloner Smith in the appendix to his British Mezzotint Portraits seems to 
mention this as a mezzotint, but he describes a plate with the subject reversed, 
so I am in doubt. There is no evidence that Burdett was a mezzotinter. Smith 
states that Burdett appears to have been a friend and fellow townsman of 

2. OTTIWELL (or OTWELL) WORRALL. Probably a professional artist. In 
1784 he exhibited a portrait of a child in crayon. I have no other information 
about him. Mr. Joseph Worrall, an aged artist in Liverpool, who died recently, 
did not know if he was descended from him. 

3. WILLIAM NEWBY. No information. 

4. MICHAEL RENWICK. A doctor. In 1773 Lecturer on Chemistry to 'The 
Society of Artists '. 

5. JOSEPH DURAND. No information. 

6. WILLIAM EVERARD. A leading founder and librarian (probably honorary) 
of the Liverpool Library (the first circulating library in England, founded 1758), 
He was a schoolmaster in Paul Square, eminent in mathematics, and after- 
wards an architect and surveyor. In 1766 he was resident at 30 John Street, 
where the Academy and the Liverpool Library were housed by him. The 
register of St. George's Church records his marriage on April n, 1760, to 
Martha Gatliff. 

7. JOHN WYKE. A watch and clockmaker, formerly of Prescot, a leading 
man in schemes of public improvement and philanthropy. 

8. JOHN ORME. No information. 

9. JOHN BAINES. No information. 

10. THOMAS CHUBBARD. A very fair portrait-painter, who also exhibited 



FIOIII Eiificlifs 'Liverpool' 

ll'alker Art Gallfly, Livrrfiool 
Exhibited with the Free Society, 1 764 


landscapes. His record as an exhibitor in London I take from Mr. Graves's 
volume on The Society of Artists. 

1763. A miniature (name given as Chubard, without baptismal name, so the ascription 
is uncertain. Afterwards, from 1772, Chubbard, painter, Liverpool). 

1772. A landscape ; a view of Rock Savage, [Cheshire]. 

1773. An unfortunate soldier; a landscape. 
A Hermit, from Parnell, in landscape. 
A view of Lancaster ; a landscape. 

At the Free Society's Exhibition. 
1771. A view on the River Dee. 

A view on the River Mersey. 

At Liverpool's first exhibition (1774) Chubbard showed fifteen pictures 
a liberal proportion, as the total number of exhibits was eighty-five. There were 
ten landscapes, including the 'Unfortunate Soldier', two bird studies, a minia- 
ture of a gentleman, a lady's portrait in crayon, and a conversation piece. Two 
young ladies, 'pupils to Mr. Chubbard ', exhibited still-life subjects, and one also 
a ' Portrait of a beggar '. At the two exhibitions held in Liverpool by the 
' Society for Promoting Painting and Design ' (hereafter to be mentioned), of 
which he was a member and ' visitor ', Chubbard was again a generous exhibitor. 
In 1784 he sent portraits of a Bishop, a Lady (in crayons), a Gentleman (small 
whole length), two Young Gentlemen (small whole lengths, in crayons), and 
seven landscapes, four marked as for sale. I have given particulars of the 
various portraits as illustrating the styles of picture in favour with persons 
giving portrait commissions in Liverpool. In 1787 there were three portraits 
and four landscapes. 

Of Chubbard's life and career I know practically nothing, except that with 
the aid of directories and catalogues I have recovered some of his places of resi- 
dence. He was probably a son of Captain John Chubbard, mariner (who died 
in 1766), and born in or about 1738. In 1769, 1774, and 1777 he was at 16 Liver 
Street and described as a painter. The Theatre Royal Bill of i7th August, 1774 
(Mrs. Melmoth's benefit), gives her address as ' Mr. Chubbard's in Hanover 
Street'. In 1781 he was at 17 Lord Street, in 1783-4 in Williamson's 
Square, in 1787 at Shaw Place (near Shaw's Brow, where the Art Gallery 
now stands), in 1790 at i Whitechapel, and from 1796 to 1807 at 6 Spring- 
field, Soho. He is variously described as painter, limner, and portrait- 
painter. He died of 'old age' May 30 at his house, King Street, Soho, 
'without a struggle or a sigh', and was buried in St. George's Church, June 5, 
1809. The entry was made by the clerk, William Maybrick, grandfather of 
' Stephen Adams '. From 1769 to 1800 there was also in Liverpool Samuel 
Chubbard, a carver and gilder and silverer, who was evidently a near relation of 
the painter, as in 1774 and 1781 their addresses were the same. He was asso- 
ciated with P. P. Burdett in his ' invention ' of aquatint engraving. Samuel died 

K 2 


at ' Kensington ', February 8, 1807, aged 66 or 67 years, of ' a disorder in the 
spine'. Billinge's Liverpool Advertiser of February 9 styles him 'a worthy, 
honest man '. 

The portrait of the notable potter, Richard Chaffers, by Thomas Chubbard 
(Plate xxvni (c)}, which is in the Liverpool Museum, is, if it was painted advivum, 
an early example of the artist's work. I should add that in referring to this 
portrait Mayer writes of it as by Caddick presumably William. One may 
reasonably infer from Chubbard's record as an exhibitor that his chief interest 
in art was landscape, and that he merely painted portraits for a livelihood. The 
only landscape by him I have traced is one of Hornby Castle, near Lancaster, 
drawn about 1772, and engraved on wood by W. Hughes for Gregson's 
Fragments towards a history of Lancashire (1816). 

ii. RICHARD TATE. According to Mayer, a merchant and patron of art in 
Liverpool. In 1774 he was a good second to Chubbard with eleven subjects, 
most, if not all, in crayon, chalk, or ' black-lead '. William Tate, Liverpool, 
showed two portraits and two drawings, possibly copies, in black chalk. Richard 
Tate was an honorary exhibitor at the 1784 exhibition, his contributions being 
of a modest description : ' A bathing piece ' and ' The British Fishery ', both in 
chalks, and a head of Rubens (already shown in 1774) in black-lead. The second 
of these was possibly a copy of Richard Wright's picture above mentioned. At 
the same exhibition the Tate family (all, according to Mayer, ' accomplished ') 
was in force, there being three other honorary exhibitors of that name, viz. Paul, 
T(homas) M(oss), and Miss Tate, all of Liverpool. Dismissing the others as 
unimportant contributors of one triviality apiece, I mention only T. M. Tate, 
who showed two heads in crayon and two landscapes, the latter both 'after 
Mr. Wright of Derby '. In 1787 he showed three landscapes, one of which was 
'A view from nature, near Matlock'. I have no doubt that all these amateurs 
were Richard's offspring, as well as William Tate, F.S.A., a portrait-painter of 
respectable rank. When he first exhibited at the Society of Artists he was 
described as ' pupil to Mr. Wright of Derby'. It is a reasonable inference that 
he was the eldest son of Richard, as in 1774 and 1775 his address was ' Liverpool '. 
He exhibited there in 1774, in 1783 he was a member and visitor of the Society 
for Promoting Painting and Design, and in 1784 he exhibited nine portraits and 
' Belisarius and his Daughter', his address being then Liverpool; although in 
1773 the Society of Artists' catalogue assigned him to Manchester, where he 
was again located in 1787, when he sent to the second Liverpool exhibition two 
portraits and 'Abraham and Isaac', and in 1791, the last time he sent to London. 
Bryan's Dictionary states that he was born about the middle of the eighteenth 
century (where and of what stock is not mentioned), studied under Wright of 
Derby, and practised successively in Liverpool, London, Manchester, and Bath ; 
also that he died at Bath in 1806. 


In the possession of Mias Sntlloiv 

14x11 HI. 
Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool 'No. 643) 

Pastel, 23 X 39 in. 
Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool (No. 486 


In all he showed twelve portraits at the Society of Artists (1771-91), of which 
he was elected a Fellow in 1774. At the Royal Academy he exhibited twelve 
works from 1776 to 1804. His addresses are Liverpool in 1776, London 177710 
1782, Manchester 178710 1803, ar d Bath in 1804. Some of his Royal Academy 
exhibits were genre subjects : ' Belisarius and his Daughter ' in 1776, ' Abraham 
and Isaac' in 1787, and in 1802 ' Boy blowing a bladder, and mischievous girl' 
and ' Girls with a firestick '. 

T. M. Tate, like his father, was a connoisseur and amateur. There are 
numerous references to members of the family in Bemrose's Life of Joseph Wright 
of Derby, but their value is diminished by the fact that Mr. Bemrose seems not 
to have been sufficiently alive to the fact that there were several Tales, or at 
least he does not at the various references enable his readers to know which of 
them is the person referred to. I think William and 'T. M.' were both pupils 
of Wright, but the latter was afterwards his more intimate friend. 

12. PETER ROMNEY. A younger brother of George Romney, born June i, 
1743. He studied with George at Kendal 1759-62. In 1765 he followed him 
to London, but did not long remain there. Thereafter he led an itinerant life, 
of which some particulars are given in an appendix to the Rev. John Romney's 
life of his father. In a letter there quoted (November 5, 1769) he wrote from 
Liverpool : ' I have about a dozen pictures in hand here, but what further 
encouragement I shall meet with I cannot judge.' He went from Liverpool to 
Manchester and continued his wandering life, which included some experience 
of prisons, until his death in May 1777. 

13. RICHARD CADDICK. This was a portrait-painter of importance, and son 
of William Caddick, also portrait-painter. The latter was son of William, 
a mercer, born about 1680, fined in 1703 for extending hospitality to Joseph 
Harrison and his three children, they being ' foreigners ' ! Liverpool was 
evidently sound in those days on the subject of aliens. Caddick was sub-bailiff 
in 1710, sidesman in 1718, churchwarden in 1719, and an overseer in 1729. He 
died and was buried at St. Peter's Church December 15, 1756. His son William, 
the artist, was born in 1719 and died on December 29, 1794. As my biographical 
outline is more or less conjectural, I think it well to mention that the St. Peter's 
register records the burial on July 8, 1755, of William, son of Thomas Chad- 
dock (sic), limner, and on November 18, 1758, of Ann, daughter of Thomas 
Chadwick (st'c), limner. This Thomas may or may not have been a Caddick, 
but at any rate he was a limner, and is therefore of interest in this connexion. 

From 1766 William, the artist, lived in Old Hall Street (his house was 
in the part known as North Walk), and he probably died there in 1794. He 
married Eliza, or Elizabeth, Wood of Burslem, a member of the noted family of 
potters. She was born on June n, 1724, and died on September 17, 1795. William 
Caddick's pictorial manner is well illustrated by his portrait, painted in 1747, of 


Aaron Wood, his brother-in-law, a worthy of whom it is recorded that ' he was 
never heard [or known] to swear, chew tobacco, take snuff, or whistle or sing in 
his life, and was considered the most lively, pleasant, and merriest man in the 
county '. W. Caddick has not quite succeeded in telling us all this with his 
brush (Plate xxvm (d)), but his portrait (which I reproduce by the courtesy 
of Mr. Frank Falkner from his valuable work, The Wood Family of Burslem, 
1912), in spite of the hard formality of the period, is alert and expressive. 
There is no marked difference of style in W. Caddick's later portrait (1766) of 
Thomas Bentley (potter, partner of Wedgwood ); the early head of Ralph Wood, 
the 'honest miller' (1744), is hard, though expressive; the picture of John Wood 
of Brownhills, which is probably later, is more animated (the hands are awkwardly 
placed) ; and the sketch portrait of his son is surprisingly alert and sympathetic. 
Mr. Falkner justly says that it ' might easily be considered to have emanated 
from the easel of Romney, so artistically beautiful is the effect achieved '. 
According to the Underhill MS., W. Caddick was well acquainted with Richard 
Wright and George Stubbs, which is extremely probable. We must accept with 
a qualification the further statement that Caddick's son Richard ' was contem- 
porary with Stubbs and Wright ', because it is obviously the result of a confusion 
of the son with the father. A further observation that ' his pictures were amongst 
the earliest exhibitions of the town ' is a good example of words so employed as 
to mean nothing. Underhill had a distinct talent in that direction. 

William Caddick is said to have been President of Liverpool's second Art 
Society on its formation in or about 1773, but whether this was William the 
second, or his son of the same name, I am not sure. His name does not appear 
in the 1774 Catalogue, as he was not an exhibitor, and no list of members and 
officers is given. 

He had two sons, Richard and William. Richard was born about 1750, 
perhaps a little earlier ; William was probably younger. Both became painters. 
William may be dismissed first, as I know less about him. In 1780 W. Caddick, 
junior (North Walk, Liverpool), made the family's sole appearance at the Royal 
Academy exhibition, with a ' Portrait in the character of Circe '. As W. Caddick, 
senior, was then sixty-one years of age, and his father had been dead many years, 
this picture must have been by his son. I have not otherwise traced him as an 
exhibitor in Liverpool or elsewhere. Probably he died young. 

Richard lived until about 1823. His successive addresses, so far as traced, 
were various numbers in Old Hall Street, 1783 to 1800; 16 Gerard Street from 
1805 ; Lord Street, 1807 ; and again Gerard Street, 1810 to 1823. In the earlier 
directories he is described as portrait-painter, but after 1805 as gentleman. 
Although a member of the 1769 Society, Richard's name does not appear in 
connexion with the 1774 Exhibition. In the Catalogue of 1784 he was mentioned 
as a Visitor of the Society, and he exhibited three portraits of gentlemen. There 



Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool (No 378 

/;/ the Collection of John Lour, Esq. 


is no mention of him in the 1787 Catalogue, and here my record of him as an 
exhibitor ends. Caddick was married, and, according to Mr. Frank Falkner, 
had three sons and a daughter. One son named William may have been the 
turner of that name recorded in Liverpool directories until 1822. The whole 
family is represented in the artist's very interesting ' conversation piece ', which 
I was so fortunate as to encounter nine years ago (Plate xxix (c)). I at once 
secured it for our Gallery, and my chief difficulty was to persuade others 
that it was worth having, for it was in a deplorably dirty and damaged con- 
dition. Careful treatment, however, changed all that, and it is now our 
unique example by a Liverpool man of a branch of portraiture much favoured 
by Hogarth, Zoffany, and Peters. The portrait of George Stubbs (Plate xxv()) 
puzzles me because it represents him as a younger man than Caddick can have 
known after becoming a qualified painter, even if he were a youthful prodigy. I 
come to the conclusion that if it is by Richard it is not Stubbs ; if it is Stubbs, 
it was more likely painted by William Caddick. Sir Walter Gilbey ascribes it 
to Thomas Chubbard. Richard's capacity for dealing with portraiture on 
a large scale is well illustrated by his portrait of Joseph Brooks, now in the 
board-room of the Liverpool workhouse (Plate xxxi (b)). His portrait of 
Mrs. Proudlove (Plate xxix(^)) is obviously an early performance (the date is 
1768), but it is by no means incapable. Richard's portrait of himself (Plate 
xxv (a)) is excellent. 

14. THOMAS CRITCHLOW. A watchmaker in Castle Street ; no other 

15. PAUL PENNINGTON. I have no information about this man, who, I con- 
jecture, may have been related to the notable potters, the Penningtons, and 
perhaps father of John Pennington, a landscape artist in the end of the eighteenth 
and the early part of the nineteenth century, of whom I wrote a short account 
for Bryan's Dictionary (vol. iv, p. 91, 1904). Mayer says John was son of the 
Liverpool potter of that name. 

16. SAMUEL ALCOCK. No information. 

17. MATTHEW TURNER, M.D. A physician of good standing, a friend of 
Josiah Wedgwood. P. P. Burdett, in a letter dated February 4, 1771, to Wright 
of Derby, indicated Turner as more likely than himself to give him useful infor- 
mation on points raised in regard to his picture, ' The Alchymist '. 

18. MATTHEW DOBSON, M.D. An eminent physician, and a member of the 
Royal Society. He resided in Harrington Street, and subsequently to 1769 
removed to Bath, where he died in 1784. 

19. JOHN EYES, JUNIOR. Son of John Eyes, a notable surveyor, architect, 
hydrographer, and map-maker, who died in 1773. John, junior, was an attorney, 
and he died early. William Roscoe was articled to him. 

20. CHARLES EYES. Probably brother of the above, but Mr. R. Stewart- 


Brown, M. A., from whose Maps and Plans of Liverpool and District by the Eyes 
Family (1910) I have obtained most of my information under this head, suggests 
a doubt, as in connexion with Charles's application in 1780 for admission as 
a freeman his father's name is recorded as James; and there was in 1761 a 
James Eyes, a cabinet-maker, and in 1766 a brewer so named. The Underbill 
MS. mentions a James Eyes, brother of John, who was supervisor of highways 
for the Corporation. Charles, according to Mr. Stewart-Brown, was born about 
1754, but his appearance as member of the Art Society in 1760 suggests an 
earlier date. He was Town Surveyor in 1777. In 1774 he exhibited a plan of 
Liverpool as it was in 1725 (probably copied from his father's plan), a view of 
Prescot Church in Indian ink, and a ' Mort de Cleopatre '. In 1784 he exhibited 
a plan of the town and township. In 1787 he was on the Committee of the 
Society. We have an oil painting which is ascribed to him, entitled 'Tran- 
mere Pool in 1810'. Except that the standpoint of the artist was on the 
Cheshire shore of the Mersey, near the Tranmere Pool, the title is wrong. 
It is a view of Liverpool, painted with such meticulous care that the various 
buildings and streets are easily identified. From examination of these, and the 
costumes of a lady and gentleman in the foreground, I would fix the date of the 
picture about 1780. It is in poor condition, but is evidently the work of an effi- 
cient painter. Charles Eyes, who had succeeded to the business of John, died 
September 3, 1803, and was succeeded in turn by his son Edward (born 1784), 
eldest of a family of eleven. He also was a notable surveyor until his retire- 
ment about 1851, when he removed to Nantwich. His son Edward succeeded 
him, but died about 1860. 

21. JOSEPH DEAR. This cannot have been John Deare, or his nephew, 
Joseph Deare, both sculptors, as they were born respectively in 1759 and (about) 
1796. John's father was named Thomas, and Joseph's Edward. Probably this 
was a member of the same family. 

22. JOHN SYKES. No information. 

The history of the pioneer ' Academy ', of which these were the original 
members, is not a distinguished one. An analysis of the list of twenty-two 
persons who originally formed it shows that it included three undoubted pro- 
fessional artists Burdett, Chubbard, and R. Caddick ; four doubtfuls (three of 
whom, however, were exhibitors) Worrall, R. Tate, C. Eyes, and J. Dear(e) ; 
three doctors, a schoolmaster, and a watchmaker. There were also ten persons 
about whom I have no information, some of whom were probably professional 
or amateur artists. There were doubtless several other artists in the town, as 
well as the three named, and W. Tate, W. Caddick, and W. Caddick, junior, of 
whom I have given some particulars. Mayer records that between December 15, 
1769, and February 12, 1770, the Society's expenditure was /n 185. gd., of 
which /8 185. 3</. went for plaster figures, cast b}' Flaxman. These were no 



In the Collection of A. Lfan A Hull, Esq. 


Jn the Collfction of A. Lion Adult, Esrj. 


doubt intended for use by students, and it was also planned that there should 
be lectures on anatomy, perspective, painting, &c., in the correct academic 
manner. According to Underhill the Society was dissolved after continuing for 
one year, but was revived by several of its members in 1770, when William 
Caddick, junior, was president, and there were fifty-nine members. The date 
of this revival, according to Mayer, was 1773, which I think more likely to be 
correct. Everard was to lecture on architecture, Dr. Turner on anatomy, 
Burdett on perspective, and Dr. Renwick on chemistry. I have not traced any 
register of members. 

In 1774 the renewed Society determined to have an exhibition of pictures in 
their room at 30 John Street, and this was opened on the ist of August. It was 
not a very extensive affair, but we have to remember that it was the first pro- 
vincial exhibition in the kingdom, and only five years after the first exhibition of 
the Royal Academy. I have not seen the Catalogue, but fortunately Mayer 
reprinted it verbatim. From this source I learn that the adventurers called 
themselves ' The Society of Artists in Liverpool ', and that it was formed by 
a few gentlemen ' last winter, with a view to improving each other, as far as their 
situation would permit, in some of the most useful of those Arts [the polite arts], 
particularly in such as have relation to PAINTING, and of assisting youth in their 
studies, to the best of their power, without any expectation of pecuniary advan- 
tage '. In submitting ' the performances of some of the members of this society 
... for the inspection of their friends ', the writer of the introduction deprecated 
harsh criticism, because of ' the difference there must necessarily be betwixt the 
productions of a small private society, resident in a remote spot, to which the 
Muses have been so lately invited, and those of a numerous collection of artists, 
happily possessing a more favoured residence of that lovely sisterhood, as well 
as worthily enjoying the immense advantages of Royal patronage and National 
encouragement '. 

I agree with Mayer that the hand is the hand of young William Roscoe 
(aged 21), who had produced, and on December 13, 1773, read to the assembled 
Society, an ode on its institution, which was printed uniform with its 1774 
Catalogue. Unfortunately that elegant composition, in the taste of Collins, 
Dryden, and Pope, was much too elevated in style to admit of any familiarities 
in the way of direct references to the Society or its members. Roscoe mentions 
only Angelo, Titian, Romano, Corregio (sic), Loraine (sic), and Hogarth. These 
masters are oddly paralleled with Milton, Waller, Dryden, Pope, Thomson, and 
Butler respectively. 

Rather more than half (44) of the exhibits have already been referred to in 
discussing the list of members, but from what remains we have evidence to 
confirm the idea that Liverpool had artists other than those connected with it. 
Roscoe himself displayed ' The mother, a drawing in Indian ink, after a French 

VI. L 


engraving ', which, if proof were needed, would show him to have had from his 
youth that direct interest in the fine arts which, through his activities, strongly 
affected public taste in his native town. The following exhibitors were evidently 
artists by profession : 

1. JOHN FORMBY (n Pool Lane, now South Castle Street). A frame with 
seven gentlemen's portraits, and one of a lady, in miniature; three landscapes ; 
a figure with an urn, and a head of the Marquis of Granby, in human hair. In 
another frame an Indian Emperor in human hair maintained a solitary dignity 
befitting his rank. I am sorry to say that I know nothing about this miniaturist, 
who probably came of a very old local family which dates back to the fourteenth 

2. WILLIAM JACKSON (67 Frog Lane, now styled Whitechapel). Portrait of 
a lady, miniature of a gentleman, and- three landscapes, apparently marines, for 
the titles are : 'Small breeze', 'Close by the wind, a hard gale', and 'Moon- 
light, a study from nature ', a description which is eloquent as to the artist's 
usual practice in picture-making. It does not seem to have resulted in great 
fame, for I can learn nothing about him or his pictures. He again exhibited (two 
ship portraits) in 1784, and a ' View from the Mersey' in 1787. 

3. NATHANIEL JOHNSON (same address), an engraver. Mr. Henry E. Young 
(in Bygone Liverpool, 1913) confuses this man with a Custom House officer named 
Nicholas Johnson. He showed two proofs of landscapes after designs by 
Rathbone, as to whom vide infra. 

4. - - MAYOR (Temple Street), engraver and seal-cutter. A frame with 
impressions of arms, ciphers, and crests. Mayer had no information about this 
man. I find that William Mayor, engraver, was married to Jane Nichols, 
spinster, at St. George's Church on November n, 1766. 

5. SHARPLES (Duke Street). A half-length portrait of a lady and two 

small ovals. This is probably James Sharpies, of whom a careful account is given 
in the Dictionary of National Biography. He was born about 1750 and died at 
New York February 6, 1811. From 1779 to 1785 he was at Cambridge, and 
exhibited fourteen drawings at the Royal Academy. He afterwards went to 
America, where he travelled about in a caravan, executing small portraits in 
profile, mostly in pastel. In 1795 he drew George Washington from the life : 
a copy of this, by his wife, is in the National Portrait Gallery. 

6. - SYKES (Houghton Street). Three drawings in Indian ink, copies 
from Cipriani ; probably John Sykes already mentioned. 

Other local exhibitors were : 

7. MATTHEW GREGSON (Castle Street), an upholsterer, who showed three 
designs for beds respectively in the Chinese, Palmyrean, and Gothic tastes. He 
was a capable draughtsman, and made excellent topographical drawings. His 
valuable publication, Fragments towards a History of Lancashire, has already 
been mentioned. He died September 25, 1824, aged 75 years, and was buried 


Liverpool Town Hall 

Liver/tool Town Hall 


Liverpool Museum 


In the fosstssioM of Mr. A. H. E. Wood 


at St. John's Church. A memorial which was erected in that church was 
on its demolition removed to the church of St. Nicholas. 

8. DANIEL DAULBY, JUNIOR (no address), a connoisseur and collector who 
married Roscoe's sister. Mayer opined that his three exhibits were not his own 
productions : I do not know why. They were a landscape in oil and two chalk 
drawings after (i) Woollett's 'Celadon and Amelia', and (2) the first scene in 
The Maid of the ^////probably the one (also engraved by Woollett) by 
J. I. Richards, R.A., which contains the only known portrait of Miss Brent, 
the singer, and the earliest portrait of my great-grandfather Charles Dibdin 
(aged 19) in the parts respectively of Patty and Ralph. Daulby was the first to 
attempt a catalogue of Rembrandt's works (1796). 

9. - STRINGER, JUNIOR (Knutsford). His father was an artist and colour 
maker at Seacombe on the Cheshire shore opposite Liverpool. There were 
two sons: (i) Samuel, who, according to Redgrave, 'had no art merit', and 
(2) Daniel, 1 who 'sacrificed his great talent to the company of country squires 
and the love of Cheshire ale '. We do not know which of these two worthies 
produced the three landscapes (with a mill, cattle, and figures respectively) 
shown in 1774. I think it was Samuel (described in 1784 as lately dead), as his 
exhibits in the latter year were landscapes, while those of Daniel were chiefly 
figure subjects. Redgrave says his drawings had 'great comic power'. 

10. J. WRIGHT (no address). Three portraits of gentlemen in black chalk. 
Mayer is careful to explain that this was not Joseph Wright of Derby, and then 
falls into the error of supposing the exhibitor was Richard Wright. 

n. RATHBONE (now at Preston). Three landscapes. Mayer, oddly 

enough, could not identify this man. It was evidently John Rathbone, a 
Cheshire artist of very fair ability, sometimes called the Manchester Wilson, 
born about 1750, died 1807. He exhibited at the Royal Academy forty-eight 
pictures from 1785 to 1806; and two small landscapes with figures at the Society 
of Artists in 1790 (see Plates xxvi (b) and xxvn). He also seems to have been 
a victim to Cheshire ale, his boon companions including G. Morland and 
Ibbetson, who painted figures in his landscapes. There is a small oil landscape 
by him in the Liverpool Gallery. 

There were also seven exhibits ' by different hands ', which included a model 
of a ship in relief, two models in clay for tablets, a head in crayons by a young 
lady, another Peter Paul Rubens in black chalk, and a water-colour flower-piece. 
Mr. William Emanuel, ' now at Bristol ', sent a model of a brig twenty-one inches 
long, and M. Richards (Birmingham) and Thomas Wilkes (of Whensbury, Staffs.) 
each showed an enamel picture. 

The Society was unable to survive this prodigious effort. How and when 
it died is not precisely recorded, but on November 2, 1775, the casts and prints 

1 A portrait of this artist, by himself, has recently been acquired by the National Gallery 
(No. 3137). It is signed ' D. Stringer, Pinx. 1776.' 

L 2 


were distributed (I suppose by auction) among the members, in exchange for 
n is. gd., which, no doubt, went to pay its modest liabilities. According to 
Mayer, Roscoe said the collapse was 'principally occasioned by the loss of 
a very ingenious and spirited member now resident in Germany '. 

We hear no more of Liverpool artists until 1783, when Roscoe had grown 
from a clever aspirant to an influential leader of thought, sufficiently important 
to be made the Vice-President and Treasurer of a new venture, ' The Society for 
Promoting Painting and Design in Liverpool ', in which I think he was the chief 

The promoters are described (in the preface to the 1784 Catalogue) as 'a 
number of Gentlemen of this town and neighbourhood ', which may safely 
be interpreted as meaning Roscoe and his friends. The artists 'generously 
seconded ' their views and allowed themselves to be nursed anew into collective 
activity. Rooms and models were provided, lectures on suitable subjects were 
arranged, students were admitted and instructed by Visitors. These were 
Richard Caddick, Thomas Chubbard, Pat. McMorland, Christopher Pack, 
William Tate, F.S.A., and John Williamson. 

The first President was a local magnate, Henry Blundell of Ince ; Thomas 
Taylor was Secretary ; and the Committee of Management for the year, from 
October 18, 1783, consisted of six gentlemen, not artists, well known locally as 
connoisseurs and lovers of art, viz. Daniel Daulby, Rev. Mr. Finch, Guy Green, 
Matthew Gregson, Michael Renwick, and Matthew Turner. 

A subscription of one guinea annually qualified for honorary membership, 
which apparently was the only form of membership. The subscribers were 
annually to appoint a Committee of six ; and the artists were to be appointed 
Visitors of the Society and 'have direction of it, with respect to Drawing, 
Painting, and the whole of the practical business '. They were to attend in such 
rotation as might be decided among themselves, with the rider that one should 
attend every evening to direct students. Students above the age of fourteen 
were to be admitted free on satisfying the Visitors as to their ability, and lectures 
were to be delivered at least once a week in the winter season by members on 
anatomy, chemistry, the theory and practice of painting, architecture, perspec- 
tive, &c. 

Before pursuing the brief history of the Society, it will be well to deal with 
the above-named officers, members of Committee, and Visitors, so far as not 
already referred to. 

i. HENRY BLUNDELL, Esq., of Ince (1724-1810). A member of a Roman 
Catholic county family, who acquired considerable reputation as a connoisseur 
and collector. There is an adequate biography of him in the D. N.B. He 
formed a remarkable collection of art objects, chiefly ancient sculpture, which is 
still at Ince-Blundell Hall. It includes three paintings of birds by ' Caddock, 


Walker Art Gallery, Liver/tool ;No 485") 

In tltt possession of Mr. A. H. E. \Vi.mi 

Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool (No. 759) 


Junior' (William Caddick), 'A Calm at Sea' by Richard Wright, three pictures 
by George Stubbs, a portrait of a pony by [Charles] Towne, and a piece of 
sculpture by John Deare. 

2. THOMAS TAYLOR, a merchant, grandson of John Taylor, a noted Hebraist 
(see D. N. B.). Thomas Taylor was born about 1758, was a pupil of Thomas 
Chubbard, and became a prominent figure in the intellectual circles of Liverpool. 

3. REV. [WILLIAM] FINCH, curate of St. Paul's Church, probably a connexion 
of the Earle family. 

4. GUY GREEN. Partner of John Sadler the potter, whose invention of the 
method of transfer printing on pottery revolutionized keramic decoration. 

The ' Visitors ' not already referred to are : 

i. PAT.[RICK JOHN] MCMORLAND, or MCMORELAND, a versatile artist who at 
this date dwelt in Cases Street, Clayton Square. In 1790 he was in Greenland 
Street. I find evidence that he was in Liverpool from 1781. In 1774-7 he was 
in Manchester. He exhibited six miniatures at the Society of Artists in 1774 
and 1775. In 1776 he showed two miniatures at the Royal Academy, and he 
was again an exhibitor there in 1777, 1779, 1781, and 1782; in 1786 he executed a 
small stipple engraving of the Rev. Samuel Medley, a Liverpool Baptist minister. 
To each of the 1784 and 1787 Liverpool exhibitions he sent ten exhibits, chiefly 
miniatures. There were also ' tinted ' and ' stained ' sketches : landscapes, sea- 
scapes, Italian views, &c. Mayer says McMorland was a 'painter on (sic) enamel 
of great skill', and that 'he executed mezzotints in collaboration with Paul Sandby, 
R.A., and other frequenters of the Bootle Coffee House a favourite resort of 
London artists spending their holiday in the north '. This is in two respects a 
very illuminating piece of information. That Bootle should be a favourite resort 
of artists from London is not surprising (except for its remoteness), for in the 
eighteenth century it was a favourite place for sea-bathing : a fact almost in- 
credible to those who know it now as part of the port of Liverpool, wholly given 
over to docks, warehouses, and a dense and rather dingy mass of appropriate 
dwelling-houses. Sandby, who had travelled all over the country, was a likely 
visitor ; it is a pity we have little- information as to his associates. It may be 
that, later, they included Turner, who, according to local legend, came to the 
near region of the Wirral to observe the sunsets, considered by natives to be 
vastly superior to anything of the kind exhibited elsewhere. I only know of 
McMorland and John Leigh Phillips of Manchester. 

The second point is the more important. We have here evidence that Paul 
Sandby was in touch with the Liverpool artists. So far as I know, he did not 
use the mezzotint process of engraving. He was, however, an etcher and a 
pioneer in aquatint. 

In Bryan's Dictionary it is stated that ' he was, perhaps, the first English 
artist who adopted this style, the secret of which, it is said, was brought into 


England by the Hon. Charles Greville, who purchased it from Le Prince, a 
French artist, and communicated it to Paul Sandby'. It is also claimed for 
Sandby, as we know, that he was the inventor of the variation on Le Prince's 
method, of applying the resin to the plate in solution, instead of as dust. I have, 
under the head of P. P. Burdett, shown that he was stated, with the aid of 
S. Chubbard, to have invented the process, with evidence of the most conclu- 
sive kind that he exhibited specimens of his work in 1772 and 1773, his descrip- 
tion of the exhibits showing not only that he was the independent inventor of 
his method, but that he ' wrought chemically ', which satisfies me that his was 
the spirit method, for the dust method could not, with equal propriety, be so 
described, and the subsequent biting of the plate with acid, being a common- 
place of the etcher's art, would not have been so indicated by him. The 
disappearance of Burdett's name after 1773 suggests that he died soon after 
unless he was the ' ingenious and spirited gentleman ' who went to Germany, 
which I think by no means improbable, as Mayer in his History of the Art of 
Pottery in Liverpool (1855) quotes a letter addressed by Burdett on February 21, 
1773, to the King of Prussia, Frederick II (the 'Great'), offering to the Berlin 
' fabric ' his discovery of ' a new, expeditious and beautiful manner of engraving 
upon copper so as to make impressions transferable to porcelain, and which, 
when vitrified, resemble and equal the most delicate paintings '. The letter is 
reprinted apropos of nothing in particular, and no information is given as to 
what followed. In a letter from Wright of Derby to his sister (which Bemrose 
dates arc. 1775-6) he wrote : ' Burdett's tour to France proves highly advan- 
tageous to him. He is to etch plates for Wedgwood and Bentley to be printed 
upon their ware an employ that will, in all probability, last him for life by 
which he will or may make four or six hundred a year '. Bemrose's dates are 
sometimes wrong, and in this instance he seems to be in error, as Burdett's 
only engagement with Wedgwood was in, or before, 1773, and it speedily came 
to an end, as he failed to satisfy Wedgwood with his ' new style of engraving ', 
which he had promised to introduce : was it aquatint, which in practice he had 
failed to apply successfully to keramic decoration? I think so. In another 
letter from Wright (to his brother Richard) dated April 13, 1774, he said : ' I have 
just received a letter from Mr. Tate of Liverpool, where he tells me Mr. Burdett 
has sold up his goods and is off. Mrs. Burdett and her dear Miss Fredried are 
gone into lodgings, over head and ears in debt '. Thus exit, so far as my present 
knowledge extends, the versatile Peter Perez Burdett. Paul Sandby first exhibited 
an engraving 'in aquatinta' at the Royal Academy in 1777, and there is no 
evidence that he showed anything of the kind at the Society of Artists or the 
Free Society. For convenience, I have relied upon Mr. Graves's analyses, 
which are as infallibly correct as can be expected of any human performance. 
Although I hold a brief for Liverpool artists, I think it will be allowed that I am 














justified in claiming that Burdett certainly practised aquatint before Sandby, 
and that in all probability he communicated his secret to Sandby, who used it, 
and applied to it the name of Le Prince's dust method. 

2. [FAITHFUL] CHRISTOPHER PACK. This was a bird of passage : a Norwich 
man, son of a Quaker merchant, born about 1759, who, being unsuccessful in 
business, took to art. An introduction to Sir Joshua Reynolds about 1781 
resulted in his employment in that artist's studio. His health being impaired he 
returned to Norwich, and thence he went to Liverpool. In or before 1786, 
he returned for a while to London, exhibiting portraits at the Royal Academy 
in that year and 1787. Next he went to Dublin, where he practised with success 
as a portrait-painter. In 1796 he was back in London, and exhibited two 
portraits, a subject picture, and a landscape at the Royal Academy. Then he 
went to Bath, and in 1802 he returned to Ireland, where he remained till about 
1821. In 1822 he was in London and showed at the Royal Academy a portrait 
of an Irish centenarian ; and in 1840 (in which year he probably died) a portrait 
of himself painted fifty-three years earlier, and a ' Contemplation '. At the 
British Institution Pack exhibited eleven pictures, chiefly landscapes, in 1825, 
1826, 1830, 1837, and 1839, giving London addresses. Willis (Secretary of the 
British Institution), in his Current Notes (1857), says many pictures alleged to 
be the work of Reynolds were painted by Pack. The only good memoir of 
Pack known to me is in Mr. W. G. Strickland's Dictionary of Irish Artists. At 
Liverpool in 1784 Pack showed nine portraits, including Miss Phillips in the 
character of ' Miranda', and two landscapes. 

3. JOHN WILLIAMSON. A portrait-painter, who was born at Ripon in 1751, 
worked for some time at Birmingham as decorator at a japanning works, resided 
in Liverpool in 1783 (probably earlier), and continued there until his death on 
May 27, 1818. He was married in 1781, and had two sons and four daughters. 
The sons Samuel and Daniel were both landscape artists, the former attaining 
to considerable distinction. The son of Daniel (Daniel Alexander Williamson) 
was also a distinguished landscapist. In 1784 John Williamson exhibited three 
portraits, two single-figure subjects, and a landscape; in 1787, five portraits. He 
was a member of the Liverpool Academy from its formation in 1810. 

After what was apparently a satisfactory winter's work by the students of 
the Society, it was decided to hold an exhibition in September 1784, the principal 
intention of it being ' to lay before the Public the result of their studies ; but as 
these wou'd not be sufficient to furnish an entertainment to the Public at large, 
the artists who have had the direction of the practical business of the Society 
have agreed to unite their endeavours, to render it more worthy of general 
approbation '. The Exhibition was further strengthened by exhibits from London : 
' amongst others, the illustrious PRESIDENT of the ROYAL ACADEMY has not 
thought it improper to favour the Societ}' with his performances ; a circumstance 


which, whilst it dignifies this undertaking, reflects the highest honour on his 
candor (sic), and politeness '. 

There were 213 exhibits (inaccurately numbered as 206), of which thirty-one 
were contributed by Londoners, viz. : 

1. George Barrett, R. A., 'late of London'. . . .2 

2. J. Cleveley .... . i 

3. H. Fuseli . -i 

4. T. Hearne .2 

5. P. Holland i 

6. William Marlow, F.S.A . . i 

7. Sir Joshua Reynolds. (Portrait of Colonel Tarleton, and view on the 

Thames from Richmond) 2 

8. Paul Sandby, R.A .12 

9. Thomas Sandby . i 

10. Dominick Serres, R.A i 

11. C. Shirriff . i 

12. Thomas Stothard 2 

13. William Watts, engraver i 

14. Mrs. Zucchi (Angelica Kauffmann) i 

15. A. Callander (Honorary) .2 

Other outsiders were : 

1. Miss Gartside, Manchester 4 

2. Mr. Haultier, Chester i 

3. Jas. Lambert, Lewes, Sussex i 

4. Pere (? Pere) Phillips, late of Brussels i 

5. Samuel Stringer, Knutsford (lately dead) 8 

6. Daniel Stringer, Knutsford 6 

7. Joseph Wright, F.S.A., Derby .7 

8. James Bolton, near Halifax (Honorary) .2 


Of the remaining 152 exhibits, thirty-five were statues, busts, masks, and 
bas-reliefs ; no doubt the Society's collection of casts for the use of students. 
These seem to have been shown in the ' smaller room below ', which was adorned 
with ' Drawings by the students, Specimens of needlework, &c.' 

These, the ostensible motif of the exhibition, were apparently not considered 
worthy of being catalogued, which is unfortunate, as the list might have furnished 
some information about the artists practising in Liverpool near the end of the 
century. The 117 local exhibits were by the following : 

1. Richard Caddick, Old Hall Street, portraits 3 

2. Thomas Chubbard, Williamson's Square, portraits and landscapes . . .12 

3. T. Deare, London, sculpture (included here because the Deares belonged to 

Liverpool) 4 



Drawn by Charles Eyes, 1799 

Size of picture 86 x 59 in. 
In the Board Room of the Select Vestry of Liverpool 


4. William Jackson, marines 2 

5. Miss Knipe, miniature and flowerpiece 2 

6. Patrick McMorland, miniatures and landscapes 10 

7. Christopher Pack, portraits and landscapes n 

8. John Pennington, student, portrait . . . i 

9. Joseph Perry, marines 3 

10. William Tate, F.S.A . 10 

n. Richard Town, portraits of two children .... . . . i 

12. J. G. Williams, still life and landscape 2 

13. John Williamson, 18 Temple Street, portraits, genre, and landscape ... 6 

14. W. Woodworth, still life i 

15. Otwell Worrall, portrait i 


' Honorary ' Exhibitors. 

1. Miss Blackburne, pencil drawings (? copies). ... ... 3 

2. Miss Costard, crayons, copies 3 

3. Miss Crevey, pencil drawings 3 

4. D. Daulby, chalk 2 

5. Miss J. Earle, chalk copy i 

6. C. Eyes, surveyor, plan of the town and township i 

7. Samuel Medley, jun., dead birds i 

8. Miss E. Palmer, tinted landscapes 2 

9. W. Roscoe, portrait and 'boy sleeping', in crayons . . . . 2 

10. Miss Sibbald, landscape i 

11. Mrs. Ann Tarleton, figure subjects and landscapes (? copies) .... 4 

12. Late Mr. William Tarleton, landscapes in Indian ink 2 

13. Miss Tate, landscape after P. Sandby I 

14. Richard Tate, chalks and pencil .... . ... 3 

15. T. M. Tate, landscape, after Wright of Derby . . . -4 

16. Paul Tate, a head in chalks . . i 

17. Miss Trafford, Leyland, 'The Tragic Muse' (? after Reynolds) i 

18. Miss Turner, figures and heads in chalks and pencil 13 


Several of the above-named Liverpool artists have already been referred to ; 
in regard to the others I have to note as follows : 

3. THOMAS DEARE. This was almost certainly John Deare (son of Thomas 
Deare of Temple Street), born October 26, 1759, died in Rome, August 17, 1798. 
As to Thomas Deare, I find that in 1760 Thomas Deare & Co., potters, adver- 
tised their 'pot house' in Patrick's Hill (now Great Crosshall Street), which 
owed its name to a cross said to mark a spot where the Irish saint preached. 
From 1769 to 1781 Thomas Deare was a silversmith and miniature-painter in 
Castle Street, and at the latter date (when he was described as 'Goldsmith, 
jeweller, and tax-gatherer') there was a surgeon of the same name in Dale 
Street. From 1790 to 1803 Thomas Deare, pot-ash maker, was at i Temple 

VI. M 


Street and Mile (? Mill) Lane. Finally, in 1816, Thomas Deare, gentleman, abode 
at i Virgil Street. Which was which I cannot say, but probably the Thomas 
Deare of 1760 was father of John, and Thomas the silversmith and miniature- 
painter of 1769 was his brother. He may eventually have dropped art in favour 
of potash in 1790, or this may have been a Thomas of the third generation. 
However, whether he were one or a trinity, we know no more about Thomas 
than that the jeweller and tax-collector had a son named John, who, at the age 
of sixteen, was apprenticed to Thomas Carter of 101 Piccadilly, London, and 
Chelsea, a sculptor-mason, for whom he carved mantelpieces, &c. He won 
a gold medal in 1780 at the Royal Academy for the design afterwards exhibited 
in 1784 at Liverpool: 'Adam and Eve, from the 4th book of Paradise Lost, 
a bas-relief.' His other exhibits were a terra-cotta crucifix, ' Bellerophon, 
a model', and 'Virginius and his daughter, a cast'. In 1785 Deare was 
granted a travelling allowance by the Royal Academy. He went to Rome and 
prospered there. His premature death in 1798 has been the subject of various 
legends, such as that the general of the French invading army fell in love with 
Deare's beautiful wife, and, to get him out of the way, cast him into prison, 
where he died. Another was to the effect that, having obtained a very fine 
block of marble, he was so much in love with it that, in order to promote 
inspiration, he slept on it at night and so caught a fatal chill. He was buried 
near the Pyramid of Caius Cestius at Rome. Deare was a sculptor of great 
merit, but his works are little known in this country, as most of them were sold 
to French and Italian connoisseurs. In 1788 he showed at the Royal Academy 
' Edward I and Queen Elenor (sic) '. The marble of this is now at Ince-Blundell 
Hall, and the Liverpool Gallery has it in plaster. In 1791 there was shown at the 
Society of Artists Exhibition in London a marble bas-relief, ' Liberality supported 
by Justice and Fortitude', which was, I think, by this artist, although the name 
is given as '- - Deer '. John Deare had two brothers Joseph, a merchant, and 
Edward, an attorney. The latter had a son, Joseph, born about 1796, who became 
a painter and sculptor. Like his uncle he went to London, where he won a gold 
medal in 1825 for a sculptural group, 'David and Goliah' (sic), which was in the 
1826 Royal Academy exhibition. The plaster of this is also at Liverpool. Deare 
was then at 12 Great St. Helens, Bishopsgate. He continued at various London 
addresses (though retaining a connexion with Liverpool), and in 1828, '9, and '30 
showed portrait busts. In 1831 appeared his historical group 'Virginius and 
Virginia'. Thereafter in 1831 and 1832 he showed more portrait busts. In the 
latter year he seems to have returned to Liverpool : on Friday, August 5, 1836, 
he died there as the result of an accident in trying to get into his house late 
at night, when unprovided with a latch-key. 

5. Miss KNIPE was an artist and teacher of drawing in Liverpool. 

9. JOSEPH PERRY. Mayer thought he was a surgeon. A George Perry 


collected materials for a History of Liverpool, which was afterwards published 
by Dr. Enfield. There was also a George Perry (not necessarily the same) who 
produced, with John Eyes, two maps of Liverpool in 1768 and 1769. 

11. RICHARD TOWN. This man, whose baptismal name was apparently 
Robert, not Richard, is chiefly of interest as probably the father of the distin- 
guished animal painter, Charles Towne; at least Mayer says so, but I have 
found no positive evidence on the subject, although I devoted considerable time 
to the inquiry when preparing a short biography of that artist for Bryan's 
Dictionary (1905, vol. v, p. 200). I have not traced any Richard Town in the 
old directories, but in 1790 I find 'Robert Town, painter and gilder', 3 Hales 
Street. In 1796 he was at no. 4, in 1803 at no. 13. Presumably it was this 
Robert Town, painter, who married Agnes Willey at St. George's Church 
April 23, 1781. I shall return later to Charles Towne. 

12. J. G. WILLIAMS. ) T . 

, , II know nothing as to these exhibitors. 


Of the Honorary Exhibitors little need be said : 

i. Miss BLACKBURNE was probably a member of a well-known local family, 
perhaps a student. Mayer says she was a botanical enthusiast. 

3. Miss CREVEY (sic), sister of Thomas Creevey, M.P., and daughter of 
Captain William Creevey of School Lane. She is mentioned in The Creevey 
Papers. Born 1765, died July 30, 1835. 

5. Miss J. EARLE. A merchant's daughter, and pupil of McMorland. 

7. SAMUEL MEDLEY, JUNIOR. Mayer thought he might be son of an animal 
painter of the same name. I think his father was the Rev. Samuel Medley, 
Baptist minister of Liverpool (1738-99), whose Memoirs (1800), compiled by 
his son, have as frontispiece an excellent portrait (' S. Medley pinx' ') engraved 
by Isaac Taylor. Another good portrait by the same artist was engraved in line 
in 1793 byj. Fittler. Medley, jun. (who was born in 1769), removed to London 
in or before 1792, in which year he began to exhibit at the R. A. From that 
date to 1805 he showed twenty-seven pictures there. According to Bryan's 
Dictionary (vol. iii, p. 313, 1904), which describes Medley as 'a follower of 
Reynolds and Gainsborough', he abandoned art in 1811 under medical advice, 
but lived until 1856. He died rich, having made a fortune as a stockbroker. 
One of his grandsons was Sir Henry Thompson, the celebrated surgeon. 

11. MRS. ANN TARLETON. ) ,, , r ., 

TI . _ \ These belonged to another notable local family. 

12. Late WM. TARLETON. J 

18. Miss TURNER. No doubt daughter of Dr. Matthew Turner. 

I have not found any evidence as to the success of the exhibition or any 
opinion as to its merit. The building in John Street in which the 1774 exhibition 
was held, and in which the Society had its classes, has long since disappeared, but 
I have been fortunate in finding an outline first-floor plan and elevation of it made 

M 2 


by Charles Eyes in 1799. The exhibition room was on the first floor, and measured 
32-5 x 14-2 feet, and its lighting must have been rather unsatisfactory, even if 
the upper stories were shallow enough to admit of a top light at the end farther 
from the street. In 1799 the two sides of the building were occupied as dwelling- 
houses. It was situated on the east side of [North] John Street, near Cook 
Street. The building now on the site is numbered 14. From the particulars 
given, the room was obviously not good for exhibition purposes, which accounts 
for the 1784 exhibition not being held there but at a house in Rodney Street 
(now No. 35). 

There was no further exhibition for three years, but the Society continued 
its work, and in 1787 it made its second and final effort not only to 'excite the 
emulation of their students, but conciliate the favor of the Public towards their 
Institution '. This exhibition was held in the premises of the Liverpool Library, 
No. 13 Lord Street (the site is now No. 47), where there was a top-light. 

The catalogue motto, 'Magnis favor ortus ab ausis, Val. Flac.', carries 
a suggestion that the Society was pleased with the result of its past work. The 
officers, committee, and visitors for the year were as follows : 

1. Nicholas Ashton, President. 

2. Thomas Wakefield, Vice- President. 

3. Thomas Taylor, Secretary. 

Committee. Visitors. 

4. Daniel Daulby. 10. Thomas Chubbard. 

5. Charles Eyes. n. Peter Holland. 

6. James Garnett. 12. Patrick McMorland. 

7. Edward Rogers. 13. William Tate. 

8. William Roscoe. 14. John Williamson. 

9. Matthew Turner. 

The majority of these have already been noticed. Of the others I can 
report little : 

1. NICHOLAS ASHTON. According to Mayer, a member of a very old local 
family, which held a high position in trade and in ' the county '. Nicholas made 
his fortune in trade in the borough (his address was 18 Clayton Square), and 
afterwards lived at Woolton Hall. He served as high sheriff in 1770. Thomas 
Hargreaves painted his portrait in miniature. He was a friend of Roscoe, and 
took a leading part in securing his return to Parliament in 1806. He died in 
J 833, aged ninety-one. He was, I conjecture, chosen as president because of 
his wealth and his possibilities as art patron. It may be noted, however, that 
among the 'honorary' exhibitors we find Miss Ashton, who showed two land- 
scapes, tinted drawings, and Master Ashton, who contributed eight landscapes 
in chalk. 

2. THOMAS WAKEFIELD. A merchant, who resided in Smithdown Lane. 


His firm was styled Wakefield and Okill, and they had a sugar-house at 
4 Preeson's Row. 

6. JAMES GARNETT. A merchant, whose address was 8 St. Paul's Square. 

.7. EDWARD ROGERS. Merchant, Everton. A man of good public spirit, 
one of the founders (in 1797) of the Liverpool 'Athenaeum '. 

ii. PETER HOLLAND. This exhibitor was among the contributors from 
London in 1784. He was now at Tarleton Street, Liverpool. His exhibits 
were two portraits, a portrait miniature, and a landscape. At the Royal 
Academy he had shown two portraits in 1781 and three in 1782. His next and 
last exhibit there was in 1793, when his address was 'Liverpool', his exhibits 
being two landscapes of Cumberland subjects. In 1810 he was first vice- 
president of the newly-formed Liverpool Academy. After 1811 he was not 
a member, but he exhibited again in 1812, after which I have no trace of him. 
His latest address was St. Anne Street. In the absence of any knowledge 
regarding Peter Holland's life and productions, I venture a conjecture that he 
may originally have come to Liverpool in connexion with the potteries, and from 
the Burslem district, where there was a family of Hollands, one of whom, the 
well-known James Holland, was born at Burslem and originally worked as 
a china painter. 

The exhibition was numerically a smaller one than that of 1784, there being 
140 exhibits as compared with 178 (exclusive of casts). The works from London 
were twice as many as before : 

1. S. Alkin . . . 2 

2. W. Beechy (Sir W. Beechey) . . i 

3. W. R. Bigg ... .2 

4. S. Elmer, A.R.A .2 

5. Joseph Farrington (sic), R.A .5 

6. H. Fuseli .3 

7. T. Gainsborough, R.A .2 

8. S. Gilpin i 

9. W. Hamilton .5 

10. S. Harding .6 

n. T. Hearne .3 

12. T. Malton, junior 7 

13. T. Mitchell . . 2 

14. W. Parry, A.R.A. ..... .2 

15. R. M. Paye . i 

16. Rev. Mr. Peters i 

17. Sir Joshua Reynolds, P.R.A., ' The Death of Dido ' . . i 

18. Paul Sandby, R.A .3 

19. W. Sharp . . i 

20. George Stubbs, A.R.A., Harvest Scenes : ' Reapers,' ' Haymakers' ' 2 

1 These were probably the pictures shown, Plate XXI. 


21. W. Tomkins, A.R.A ' . . . 2 

22. T. Walmsley, scene painter ,. i 

23. J. Webber, A.R.A * . . . i 

24. F. Wheatley .-2 

. 58 

The contributions of the ' outlanders ' were 26 as compared with 30 : 

1. W. Craig, Manchester 4 

2. R. Home, Dublin i 

3. Carlo Labruzzi (no address) i 

4. Samuel Medley, junior, Birmingham 5 

5. W. Stavely, York i 

6. T. Stringer, Knutsford i 

7. D. Stringer, do. i 

8. W. Tate, Manchester, 'Abraham and Isaac ', and two portrait subjects . 3 

9. J. Wright, Derby 5 

10. Angelica Zucchi, Rome 2 

11. W. Burnthwaite, Ulverstone (honorary) 2 


The local contributors show a very marked shrinkage, ominous as to the 
future. Thirteen professional artists showed 46 works instead of 69 by fifteen ; 
and the 'honorary' exhibits had dropped from 48 to 10. The catalogue makes 
no reference to students' work : 

1. T. Chubbard, Shaw Place, portraits and landscapes 7 

2. T. Hazlehurst, 32 Hurst Street, nine miniatures in a frame . . . i 

3. P. Holland, Tarleton Street . . 4 

4. W. Jackson, landscape i 

5. Edward Kennion, animals in landscape 2 

6. Eliza Knipe, John Street, miniatures and drawings 4 

7. Moore, a fancy sketch i 

8. P. McMorland, Cases Street, miniatures and stained portrait sketches .. 10 

9. Joseph Parry, landscapes 4 

10. W. Place, a seapiece i 

11. C. Town, 5 Hale Street, landscape i 

12. W. Woodworth, portraits 5 

13. J. Williamson, St. Paul's Square, portraits 5 


14. Miss Ashton i 

15. Master Ashton i 

16. Miss Tate 2 

17. T. M. Tate 3 

18. Miss Trafford, Leyland 3 



Regarding these eighteen exhibitors, so far as not already dealt with, I have the 
following information : 

2. T(HOMAS) HAZLEHURST, an excellent miniaturist, of whom little is known, 
said to have been a pupil of Reynolds. According to Bryan's Dictionary 
he practised in Liverpool from 1760 to 1818. He probably died in 1821. In 
the catalogue of the portion of Joseph Mayer's Collection sold in Liverpool 
December 15, 1887, I find (no. 153): ' Scribbleriana, by Thomas Hazlehurst, 
miniature painter, with a number of clever sketches interspersed.' I do not 
know where it now is, and would be glad to hear of it. Hazlehurst (Rodney 
Street) showed miniatures at the Liverpool Academy Exhibitions of 1810, 1811, 
and 1812. The highly finished art of Hazlehurst is sometimes confused with 
that of THOMAS HARGREAVES, also of Liverpool, the fact that their initials were 
the same being contributory. I believe that while Hazlehurst usually signed 
his miniatures, Hargreaves did not, as a rule, do so. The latter was considerably 
younger, having been born in Liverpool in 1773. He was a pupil-apprentice of 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, whose manner he copied. He exhibited three portraits 
(? miniatures) at the Royal Academy in 1798, his address being 10 Leicester 
Street, London. Thereafter he left London, probably because of ill health, and 
returned to Liverpool. The first trace of him there is in 1807, when he was at 
65 Vauxhall Road. In the following year he sent a portrait to the Royal 
Academy, and in 1809 five portraits. T. Hargreaves, of Woolwich, exhibited 
portraits in 1831 and 1843, but I do not think this was Thomas of Liverpool. 
He was an original member of, and exhibitor at, the Liverpool Academy in 
1810, and an original member of the Society of British Artists in 1824. Three 
of his sons were miniaturists. He died in Liverpool on January 5, 1847. 

5. EDWARD KENNION. Mayer knew nothing about this man. In Welsh 
Painters, by the Rev. T. Mardy Rees (N. D.), there is a brief account of him, from 
which I gather that he was of Welsh origin, grandson of a Nonconformist (pro- 
bably Unitarian) minister, and born, in Liverpool, January 15, 1743 (old style, 
i. e. 1744). He was for a time engaged in commercial pursuits in Havannah, 
Jamaica, and elsewhere. In 1789 he removed to London and began to teach 
drawing. In 1790 he was at 7 Princes Street, Leicester Fields, was elected 
Fellow of the Society of Artists, and sent twenty-five pictures in nineteen frames 
to their exhibition, landscape subjects ; a good many of them studies of trees, in 
which he specialized. Twelve of them were catalogued as intended for a forth- 
coming book on Elements of Landscape, but according to Mr. Rees he only 
issued one volume of it, and died in 1790, which is wrong. I find that Kennion 
had five exhibits in 1791, including a ' Group of Ash ' for ' Elements of Land- 
scape, No. Ill ', which identifies him with them, although his name is given as 
E. Kenyon. Four years later E. Kennion, of 51 Charlotte Street, exhibited 
three pictures at the Royal Academy, the subjects of two of them 'The Oak 


and Ash ' and 'A Sketch of Oaks ' suggesting that the exhibitor was the F.S.A. 
This man again showed two pictures in 1796, two in 1806, and one in 1807. In 
or about 1815 there was published an essay by E. Kennion on Trees in Land- 
scape, which I think was the work on which he was engaged as early as 1790, 
containing fifty engraved illustrative plates by his son with four others repro- 
ducing his pictures, and six etchings from nature by 'Grecian' Williams. Had 
Mr. Rees consulted the memoir in this volume he would have learned that the 
artist did not die in 1790, but on April 14, 1809. Of the essay a critic, ' Arlunydd 
Penygarn ', wrote : ' He seems to have devoted himself to the representation of 
the specific growth of trees, and gives studies of a great number, sometimes very 
good, sometimes not so happy, but it was a thing needed in the art of the time, 
which in wood-engraving Hugh Hughes did so excellently.' Kennion's presence 
in his native town in 1787, prior to going to London, has not hitherto been 
recorded. As evidence of identity, if any be needed, I may mention that one of 
his exhibits in that year was ' A landscape with a group of asses ', and at the 
Society of Artists Exhibition in 1791 he showed 'Landscape with asses'; while 
the other was ' A portrait of an old starting horse (an American scene) '. Edward 
Kennion's son, Charles James Kennion, also of 51 Charlotte Street, exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1804, and thereafter contributed from time to time 
until 1853, showing in all twenty-six pictures, chiefly of Welsh landscape 
subjects. The publication of his father's long-meditated book was evidently due 
to his filial piety. 

7. MOORE. Not identified. 

8. JOSEPH PARRY. Born in Liverpool in 1744. He was apprenticed to 
a ship and house painter, and having studied in his leisure became a professional 
artist. In 1790 he removed to Manchester, where he died in 1826 after a 
successful career. He painted genre pictures and portraits. 

9. W. PLACE. Not identified. 

ii. C. TOWN. Mayer was in doubt as to whether or no this was Charles 
Towne, the well-known painter of horses, cattle, and landscape, which is not 
surprising, as there is practically nothing known about him beyond the informa- 
tion to be gathered from catalogues, which I summarized carefully in Bryan's 
Dictionary (1905, vol. v, p. 200), and need not repeat here, as Towne's activities 
were chiefly in the nineteenth century. If, as is stated, he died in 1850, he must 
have been quite young in 1787, and the fact that he only exhibited 'a small 
landscape ' agrees with this. On the whole, I am disposed to decide that this 
was the first appearance of the well-known Charles Towne, who was son 
(according to Mayer) of Richard (or Robert) Town, an exhibitor in 1784, 
though obviously not by the marriage in 1781, of which I have found 
a record. A significant piece of evidence is that Robert Town lived at 3 Hale 


14 and 15. Miss ASHTON and MASTER ASHTON. No doubt children of the 

18. Miss TRAFFORD. Not identified. Perhaps a daughter of Alderman 
Trafford, a merchant in the eighteenth century, whose name survives in the 
small street known as Trafford's Weint ( = Wynd). 

The Society for Promoting Painting and Design held no more exhibitions 
and, sooner or later, dwindled out of existence : I have been unable to find any 
particulars on the subject. The times became unfavourable to the fine arts, and 
after the French Revolution the air was charged with apprehension and unrest, 
which increased with the progress of the Napoleonic wars. Ireland was 
presently in a state of rebellion, and this country passed through a long period 
of anxiety and financial depression, because of our conflicts with France. It 
may be that these large causes had less effect on the fortunes of the Society 
than the fact that William Roscoe was now busily occupied with researches for 
his well-known historical books on the Medici. From the first tentative effort in 
1769 to form an Academy, his name had been constant among those who tried 
to organize a strong art society in Liverpool. That interest did not cease, for 
we find Roscoe again prominent when in 1810 a more vigorous Academy was 
formed, which, in spite of one or two periods of inanition, has survived until the 
present day, and is now, if we accept 1810 as its date of origin, our oldest society 
of artists out of London, and only preceded in the metropolis by the Royal 
Academy and the ' Old ' Water-colour Society. 

I hope hereafter to trace the history of the Liverpool Academy of Arts and 
the annals of the artists, many of them notable men, who belonged to it : it is 
a subject which will prove more generally interesting than that with which 
I have now dealt. For the present it only remains to confess that in regard to 
the last thirteen years of the eighteenth century and the decade that followed, 
we know no more than that there were certain men who have been mentioned 
by me who continued to practise the fine arts in Liverpool, with doubtless others 
whose names are unknown. I find, for instance, that Henry Pickering, a 
portrait-painter, mentioned in Redgrave and Bryan, without any biographical 
particulars, was resident in Hunter Street, Liverpool, in 1781 and 1790. Some 
years ago two portraits by him, of Thomas Johnson, Mayor, and his wife, came 
under my notice, and I identified them. They now hang in the Liverpool Town 
Hall (Plate xxvm (a) and (% In 1787 one of T. Chubbard's exhibits was 
'A view of the Lighthouse on the Smalls, after a drawing by H. Pickering Esq.' 
As the city grew rapidly in size, importance, and wealth, there would be an 
increased field of patronage to which to appeal ; and the influence of Roscoe 
and the men of taste he gathered round him would certainly fertilize it. On the 
other hand, the potteries, formerly one of the most important local industries, 
were declining, and the Liverpool limners and engravers of the eighteenth 

VI. N 


century had been extensively employed and encouraged by the potters. The 
obscurity surrounding my subject is its best justification. I have referred to 
ninety-eight persons who practised or who were interested in art (of whom about 
thirty were probably amateurs) and I doubt if any one outside of Liverpool 
has ever heard of as many as a dozen of these. Of the great majority, even 
I, placed most favourably for knowing, can tell no more than I have set down ; 
nor have I seen any of their works. I hope that the circulation of this mere 
framework for our local art history among those who are most keenly interested 
in British art in past times may result in many contributions of further informa- 
tion. If it does I shall gladly avail myself of all such further knowledge. I hope, 
also, that like-minded students in other provincial centres may follow my 
example, and that in this way we may gradually reconstruct a more complete 
art history of our island, to take the place of the present scrappy and empirical 

I take the opportunity, also, of urging on those in charge of art museums 
throughout the country that they should recognize it as their first duty, if they 
take themselves seriously, to form collections illustrating local artists. I do not 
suggest any neglect of other things. By all means let us collect priceless fashion- 
able old masters, if rich enough to do so. Let us also cater more acceptably for 
the general public who are our real masters, and do something to encourage the 
best contemporary art by acquiring fine modern pictures ; but let us not forget 
the serious student, for whose benefit, as well as for the information of fellow 
citizens, each city and town ought to be in a position to show what its artists 
have achieved. Even minor men and artists whose productions are not likely at 
the present time to please should be represented. In Florence, one goes to see 
Florentine pictures ; in Venice, the Venetians ; and so elsewhere in Italy. It is 
the Dutchmen who interest in Holland, the Flemish in Belgium, Velasquez 
and his compatriots at Madrid. Even in Germany the savage ugliness of much 
of their native art interests more than the elaborate collections from other 
nations. The Cologne School at Cologne and the Hamburg School at Hamburg 
are examples of well-considered local collections not at present available for 
study. At the latter city, my friend Professor Dr. A. Lichtwark, of whom 
I can freely speak in praise as he is dead, was possessed by a wild enthusiasm 
for the achievements of the local school, and, I believe, esteemed them above 
all his other possessions, in spite of the barbarous and bourgeois character of the 
greater part. He understood and fulfilled his duty as an art-director; let others 
do likewise. 

[I gratefully acknowledge the kind help of a number of friends and correspondents 
who have materially helped me in preparing this paper, especially the following : Lord 
Leverhulme has kindly allowed me to reproduce some of the fine examples of George 
Stubbs's paintings on Wedgwood panels now in his possession. Mr. Frank Falkner, of 


Manchester, has lent me blocks reproducing works by the Caddicks and Thomas Chubbard. 
The Rector of Liverpool, the Rev. Harold Bilbrough (now Lord Bishop of Dover), allowed 
me to search the Liverpool Parish Registers ; Mr. Henry Peet and Captain Bostock have 
lent me photographs ; Sir Henry Trueman Wood, Secretary of the Royal Society, was at 
great pains to answer my inquiries as to matters touched on in the Society's records ; 
Mr. F. Williamson, Curator at Derby, obtained for me a photograph of ' The Orrery" ; my 
colleague, Mr. G. T. Shaw, Chief Librarian Liverpool Public Library, and his staff have 
been helpful in many ways ; Mr. Hutt, Librarian of the Liverpool Library (Lyceum), has 
been equally kind ; and I gladly acknowledge also the enthusiastic and valuable aid I have 
received from Mr. Thomas White. I have already acknowledged in the text my obligations 
to various books and their authors or compilers.] 

N 2 

9 2 



The letters after the names indicate : A. Amateur or Connoisseur. Arch. Architect. E. En- 
graver. En. Enamel Painter. L. Limner. M. Miniaturist. P. Painter. S. Sculptor. Sur. 

Name of Artist. 

See pages 



Dates mentioned. 

Samuel Alcock. 



Miss Ashton. (A.) 

84, 86, 89 


Master Ashton. (A.) 

84, 86, 89 


Nicholas Ashton. (A.) 




John Baines. 



Miss Blackburne. (A.) 



Henry Blundell of Ince. (A.) 




P. P. Burdett, F.S.A. (P., E.) 

65. 67, 71, 78 

1763. 1774 

Richard Caddick. (P.) 

69, 80 



William Caddick. (P.) 




William Caddick, junior. (P.) 

70. 72, 73 


Thomas Chaddock, or Chadwick. (L.) 



Samuel Chubbard. (E.) 

67, 78 



Thomas Chubbard. (P.) 

66, 71. 80, 84, 86, 89 



Edward Clifton. (L.) 



1708, 1714 

Miss Costard. 



Miss Crevey, or Creevey. (A.) 




Thomas Critchlow. 



Daniel Daulby, junior. (A.) 

75, 76, 81, 84 



John Deare. (S.) 

72, 81 



Joseph Dear(e). 



Joseph Deare. (S.) 




Thomas Deare. (M.) 



Dr. Matthew Dobson. (A.) 



Joseph Durand. 



Miss J. Earle. (A.) 

81, 83 


Jeremiah Evans. (E.) 



William Everard. (A.) 



Charles Eyes. (Arch.) 

71, 81, 84 

J 754 


John Eyes. (Arch.) 

71, 83 



John Eyes, junior. (Arch.) 



Rev. Wm. Finch. (A.) 

76, 77 


John Formby. (M.) 



Jas. Garnett. (A.) 



John George. (L.) 



Guy Green. 



Matthew Gregson. (A.) 

68, 74, 76 



Thomas Hargreaves. (M.) 




T. Hazlehurst. (M.) 




Peter Holland. (P., M.) 

84, 85, 86 

1784, 1812 

Wm. Jackson. (M., P.) 

74, 81, 86 


Nathaniel Johnson. (E.) 



Edward Kennion. (P.) 

86, 87 



Miss Knipe. (P.) 

81, 82, 86 


Isaac Le Groates, or Legrote. (L.) 


1705, 1708 

Patrick John McMorland. (P.) 

76, 77, 81, 84. 86 


1774, 1790 

William Mayor. (E.) 



Samuel Medley, junior. 



- Moore. 

86, 88 


William Newby. 





Name of Artist. 

See pages 



Dales mentioned. 

John Orme. 



Faithful Christopher Pack. (P.) 

79, 81 


iH. ( ,> 


Miss E. Palmer. 



Joseph Parry. (P.) 



John Pennington 

71, 81 


Paul Pennington. 



Joseph Perry. (A.) 



Henry Pickering. (P.) 


1759, i7S>6 

W. Place. (P.) 



John Rathbone. (P.) 




Dr. Michael Renwick. (A.) 

66. 76 

1769, 1773 

Edward Rogers. (A.) 

84, 85 




Peter Romney. 


J 743 



W. Roscoe. 

73, 76, 81. 84, 89 



Thomas Rothwell. (En., P.) 


1760, 1761 

James Sharpies. (P.) 



Miss Sibbald. 



Daniel Stringer. 



Saml. Stringer, junior. 



George Stubbs, A.R.A. (P.) 

61. 6-2. 70. 71 1724 


George Townley Stubbs. (E.) 

63 1756 


William Sutton. (E.) 



John Sykes. (P.) 

72, 74 

1769, 1774 

Mrs. Ann Tarleton. (A.) 

81, 83 


Wm. Tarleton. (A.) 

81, 83 


Miss Tate. (A.) 

68. 81, 86 


Paul Tate. (A.) 

68, 81 


Richard Tate. (A.) 

68, 81 


Thos. Moss Tate. (A.) 

68. 81, 86 



William Tate, F.S.A. (P.) 

68, 81. 86 


Thomas Taylor. (A.) 



Charles Town(e). (P.) 

83, 86, 88 


l8 5 

Richard (or Robert) Town. (P.) 

81, 83, 88 

1784, 1803 

Miss Trafford. (A.) 

81, 86, 89 


Dr. Matthew Turner. (A.) 

71, 76, 84 


Miss Turner. (A.) 

81, 83 


Thos. Wakefield. (A.) 



J. G. Williams. 



John Williamson. (P.) 

79. 81, 84, 86 1751 


Hamlet Winstanley. (P.) 

62 1700 


W. Woodworth. (P.) 

81, 83, 86 

1784, 1787 

Ottiwell Worrall. (P.) 

66, 81 

1769, 1784 

Edward Wright. (P.) 


1769. 1773 

Elizabeth Wright. (P.) 


1773. 1776 

J.Wright. (P.) 



Mrs. Louisa Wright. (P.) 


1770, 1777 

Richard Wright, F.S.A. (P.) 

60, 68, 70 1735 


JohnWyke. (A.) 





THE present instalment of reproductions from Turner's 'South Wales' 
sketch-book (Plates xxxn to XLI) completes the selection of drawings chosen by 
the Committee of the Walpole Society for reproduction. The first instalment 
was published in our third volume, when the present writer had the honour of 
contributing some notes dealing with the first nineteen pages of this valuable 
and interesting sketch-book. There remain sixty-four leaves, with which I pro- 
pose to deal on the present occasion. Most of these were used by Turner for 
the drawings and notes made during his tour in South Wales, in 1795, which 
was mapped out on the inside of the cover of the book and on the fly-leaves ; 
these notes were transcribed in full on pp. 90-4 of Vol. III. But when this 
sketching-tour was finished several of the leaves at the end of the book remained 

These idle pages must have offended Turner's thrifty mind, for in April, 
1798, when he set out to visit his friend, the Rev. Robert Nixon, at the 
Parsonage, Foots Cray, Kent, he took the book with him among his scanty 
luggage. From Foots Cray he went on a three days' sketching-tour round 
Aylesford and Maidstone. He managed to use up pages 74 to 87 during this 
tour and some of the leaves which are now loose, but which have been num- 
bered 92 to 97. The drawings at Canterbury (pp. 71 and 72) were probably 
made either during this tour or immediately afterwards. When the drawings 
of Christ Church, Oxford (p. 97), and of the North-west view of St. Mary Red- 
cliffe, Bristol, were made, I don't know. There is no evidence on the point ; 
and I should be sorry to annoy my friend, Mr. C. F. Bell, by indulging in 
' morphological analysis '. 

Turner's frugal habit of using up the empty leaves of his sketch-books on 
any favourable occasion was a constant trouble and snare to me when I was 
worrying out the chronological sequence of his work for the National Gallery 
' Inventory '. At that time there was no published record of the little sketching- 


tour in 1798. It was not till May, 1912, that Mr. Lionel Cust first drew atten- 
tion to this episode in the pages of the Burlington Magazine. As he pointed 
out then, 'it is curious that no note of this sketching-tour in 1798 occurs in 
any life of Turner ', though he was not quite accurate in adding, ' and no sketch- 
book is known to exist containing water-colour drawings of such scenery at such 
a date '. Two of the drawings had been correctly described among the contents 
of the ' South Wales ' sketch-book, viz. p. 94, ' Maidstone Bridge, with houses 
and shipping ' (now admirably reproduced in colours on Plate xxxix), and p. 95, 
' Ruins of Allington Castle, near Maidstone'. It is true, however, that the date 
was not correctly given (because I didn't know it), and that the sketch-book 
itself was arranged under the year 1795, to which it indeed belongs. 

Thanks to Mr. Gust's discovery, several other drawings belonging to this 
tour have now been identified. But before dealing with these I think it will be 
best to print in full the interesting information about this tour which Mr. Cust 
has very kindly placed at my disposal. It is contained in an extract from 
a Memoir of John Francis Rigaud, R.A., compiled in 1855 by his son, Stephen 
Francis Dutilh Rigaud. This memoir has remained in manuscript, and was lent 
to Mr. Cust in 1895 by the writer's niece, Miss Emily Davies. 

Mr. Stephen Rigaud was staying with the Rev. R. Nixon at the Parsonage, 
Foots Cray, Kent, when he received a letter from his father, dated i4th April, 
1798; this enabled him to date correctly the events of which he wrote the 
following account : 

'Soon after I had received this letter, an unexpected visitor made his appearance 
William Turner, the afterwards justly celebrated landscape-painter, who was received by 
the generous occupant of the little parsonage with a hearty welcome. Mr. Nixon had 
been one of the first to notice him when he was living with his father the hairdresser in 
Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, he brought him to my Father, who greatly encouraged him, 
introduced him to the Royal Academy as a Student, and was the first friend he had 
amongst the Royal Academicians ; so of course we were all intimately acquainted with 
each other. Mr. Nixon was also a Pupil of Turner's in landscape painting, and of mine in 

' It was the Saturday evening, and it was soon arranged that on Monday morning we 
should all three set off on a pic-nic sketching party for three days. The next day being 
Sunday, I accompanied our mutual friend to the parish church close by, which stood 
almost concealed by tall majestic trees, a sweet secluded spot, whose solemn stillness 
seemed to invite the soul to meditation and to God. As for Turner it had no such attrac- 
tion. He worshipped nature with all her beauties ; but forgot God his Creator, and dis- 
regarded all the gracious invitations of the Gospel. On our return from church we were 
grieved and hurt to find him shut up in the little study, absorbed in his favourite pursuit, 
diligently painting in water colours. 

' The next morning, after an early breakfast, we started on our sketching party 
through a beautiful part of the County of Kent. It was a lovely day, and the scenery most 
delightful. After having taken many a sketch and walked many a mile, we were glad at 
length to seek for a little rest and refreshment at an inn. Some chops and steaks were 


soon set before us, which we ate with the keen relish of appetite, and our worthy friend 
the Clergyman, who presided at our table, proposed we should call for some wine, to which 
I made no objection, but Turner, though he could take his glass very cheerfully at his 
friend's house, now hung his head, saying " No I can't stand that", Mr. Nixon was too 
polite to press the matter further, as it was a pic-nic concern ; so giving me a very signifi- 
cant look, we did without the wine. I mention this anecdote to show how early and to 
what an extent the love of money as a ruling passion already displayed itself in him, and 
tarnished the character of this incipient genius ; for I have no hesitation in saying that at 
that time he was the richest man of the three ; Mr. Nixon having then but a very small 
Curacy, and I having little more than the pocket money allowed me by my Father, whilst 
Turner had already laid up something in the funds, and for which his good friend 
Mr. Nixon was one of the Trustees whilst he was still under age. This little incident, 
though calculated to throw a chilling influence over the cordiality of our sketching party, 
could not prevent our greatly enjoying the remaining part of our beautiful tour, particularly 
the river scenery on the banks of the Medway as far as Aylesford ; and at the end of the 
third day we returned to the quiet rural parsonage of Foots Cray, very much delighted 
with our excursion.' 

As Mr. Cust remarks, ' the general care and accuracy of Stephen Rigaud's 
memoir of his father lead one to put implicit trust in his narrative of the visit of 
Turner to Foots Cray and the sketching-tour on the Medway to Aylesford ', but 
we must remember that the account was written nearly sixty years after the 
event. The remarks about Turner's love of money were evidently coloured by 
the newspaper twaddle and ill-natured gossip which were current at that time. 
If it were not for such influences the writer might possibly have found something 
to admire in the strength of mind which enabled the young artist to refrain from 
incurring needless expenditure in spite of the foolish incitement of his reverend 
and senior host. Turner was only a little over twenty-one years of age then, 
and his professional earnings could not have been large. He was also on the 
point of making a lengthy sketching-tour through Wales in the summer and 
autumn of that year, and it was, at least in my opinion, only prudent of him to 
wish to husband his slender resources. 

An entry inside the cover of one of Turner's sketch-books the smaller 
South Wales book (xxv.) of 1795 throws some additional light on this incident. 
There Turner has written in pencil, 'Lent Mr. Nixon, 2.12.6'. If a reverend 
gentleman borrows money of a youth of nineteen or twenty, that youth might 
well think he was doing his creditor a service by helping him to keep down his 
expenditure. So that even if Turner's refusal to drink wine when he didn't 
want it was a purely selfish action, I cannot help thinking that, had Mr. Stephen 
Rigaud seen the memorandum in Turner's note-book which I have just quoted, 
he would not have made quite so much fuss as he has done about the young 
artist's temperance. 



In our third volume I gave a record of the first nineteen pages of the ' South 
Wales ' sketch-book, supplementing and correcting the descriptions given in my 
' Inventory ' of 1909. The following notes continue this record for the remaining 
pages of the book : 

Page 20. ' Gate Holm Stack.' Pencil, with part of the drawing finished in 
water-colour. (Sixth Loan Collection, No. 2.) 

21. ' Laugharne Castle.' (Fourth Loan Collection, No. i.) A different 

view from that on p. 19, which is reproduced, Plate LXXXVI, 
Walpole Society, vol. iii. 

22. A rocky bay (probably in Carmarthen Bay). Partly finished in water- 

colour. For an unfinished attempt to work this up into a picture, 
see xxvin E. 

23. 'Walls of Tenby.' (Sixth Loan Collection, No. 14.) Two com- 

missions, from Mr. Landseer and Mr. Lambert, for water-colours 
of this subject are recorded in the list of ' Order'd Drawings ', p. 5 
of fly-leaves. The cross against Mr. Landseer's commission 
suggests that the drawing was made, but I have no record of its 

24. Part of the ruins of Carew Castle. 

25. Carew Castle. (Exhibited Drawings, No. 622 a., N. G.) 

26. 'Carew Castle Mill.' 

27. ' Hook, Pembrokeshire.' Part finished in water-colour. (Exhibited 

Drawings, No. 759, N. G.) 

28. Ruins, with winding river and mountains in distance. 

29. 'St. David's Head.' Finished water-colour, signed 'Turner', and 

inscribed 'St. David's Head', and Porthsallie Bay'. (Plate xxxn.) 
(Exhibited Drawings, No. 401, N. G., as 'The Mewstone, Plymouth 
Sound' about 1791. Mr. Ruskin's note in his second catalogue 
' Interesting as the first thought of one of his best known works '.) 

The rocks and distance were, I think, coloured on the spot the procedure 
adopted in pages 20, 22, and 27. The sky, foreground, and figures were 
probably added afterwards. Then the leaf was cut from the book, laid down 
on a piece of board, and decorative borders were added, almost, certainly b}^ 
the artist himself. The title of the drawing, ' St. David's Head', was printed in 
pencil, also by the artist, and on the margin above he wrote the additional 
information, ' Porthsallie Bay '. 

The drawing, unlike most of Turner's sketches, was evidently intended for 
sale. But it either remained unsold or, if sold, was bought back afterwards, 
for it was in the artist's possession at his death. 


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Its fate, after it had become the property of the nation, throws a rather 
unpleasant light on Mr. Ruskin's conception of the task of arranging and cata- 
loguing these sketches and drawings. It was included in the first 460 drawings 
chosen by Mr. Ruskin for public exhibition. But Turner's carefully-ruled and 
tinted border did not meet with approval, so a cheap, common-looking mount 
was cut to cover it up. The new mount was too small, for it covered not only 
the border but also half an inch and more on each of the four sides of the 
drawing itself, thus destroying the balance of the composition and the general 
effect of the design. Turner's mount was not only covered up, it was defaced 
with liberal daubs of glue to hold the cheap and nasty mount of commerce 
in position. Traces of some of the mischief done are visible in the accompanying 
reproduction, and the curious will also be able to trace those portions round the 
edges of the drawing which were concealed by the new mount, as the drawing 
was afterwards recklessly exposed to the light, which bleached it, while the 
parts protected (unintentionally) by the mount retained their full force and 

Having got Turner's tell-tale title carefully concealed in this way, for the 
title was printed on the border Mr. Ruskin was free to fancy anything he 
liked about the subject-matter. The rocks, though they are not at all like those 
in Plymouth Sound, reminded him of the Mew Stone. The drawing was there- 
fore christened 'The Mewstone, Plymouth Sound', it was dated 'about 1791 ', 
and the public were told that it was ' Interesting as the first thought of one of 
his (Turner's) best known works '. 

Page 30. Rocky coast. Probably in St. Bride's Bay. 

31. ' Knolton Bay Mill ' (Nolton Haven, St. Bride's Bay). 

32. Rocks on Coast ' Ramsey Island '. 

33. ' Bishop and Clerks.' 

34. Rocks on Coast, with boats. Part finished in water-colour. (Oxford 

Loan Collection, No. 16, described as ' Sea Surf. Earliest try 
at it '.) 

35. Ruins of Bishop's Palace, St. David's. 

36. Bishop's Throne, St. David's Cathedral ' (Plate xxxm). 

37. ' Bishop Vaughan's Chapel, St. David's.' Pencil, part coloured. 

(Fifth Loan Collection, No. 31.) 

38. ' Llandowro Mill.' Cf. xxvin, B., a monochrome wash drawing, 

i6J x 9! in., based on this sketch. 

39. Gateway of the ruined Palace, St. Davids. 1 Cf. xxvin, C, an 

unfinished water-colour, i6J x 10 in., based on this sketch. 

1 I have to thank Mr. John Ballinger, the learned and indefatigable librarian of the National 
Library of Wales for drawing my attention to the engraving in the Gentleman's Magazine, July 1856, 
and thus enabling me to identify the subject of this sketch. 

O 2 


40. Interior of St. David's Cathedral. Pencil, part in water-colour. 

41. Rocks on Coast. Written on water, ' Dark O. Green '. 

42. Missing. 

43. Water Mill and dock leaves. 

44. Blank. 

45. Buildings, with Water Mill and figures. 

46. Missing. 

47. ' Wye Bridge, Hereford.' 

48. North-west Porch of Hereford Cathedral. 

49. An old oak-tree in the grounds of Hampton Court, Herefordshire. 

See ' Order'd Drawing ' of ' Oak ' for Lord Viscount Maiden, on p. 5, fly- 
leaves of this sketch-book. 

This is probably the water-colour, now in the Manchester Whitworth 
Institute, No. 255, in Catalogue (1909 edition), described as 'Cassiobury Park, 
near Watford ' (Mrs. Mary Worthington Bequest). 

Page 50. The Cascade, Hampton Court, Herefordshire (Plate xxxiv). 

See order for finished water-colour of this subject for Viscount Maiden 
(born November 13, 1757, died April 23, 1839, became 5th Earl of Essex, 1799), 
on p. 5, fly-leaves of this sketch-book. 

This is probably the water-colour now in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
(1682-71), catalogued as ' A Waterfall '. The water-colour (Plate xxxv) is signed 
'W. Turner' and said to be dated '1795'. It was acquired in 1871, as part of 
the William Smith Gift, and is said to have come from Lord Essex's Collection. 

Page 51. A View of Hampton Court, Herefordshire. 

An engraving of a water-colour by Turner of this view was published in the 
Copperplate Magazine on September i, 1797.' 

1 The following description of Hampton Court accompanied the engraving : 

'It is delightfully situated five miles S.E. of Leominster, and is distinguished by a very fine 
mansion, built (castle-form) in a valley near the confluence of the rivers Lug and Wye, under cover- 
ture of Dynmoor ; and from the top of the house runs a stair-case which is said to have a subter- 
ranean conveyance to Dynmoor Wood. 

This edifice was erected by Rowland Lenthal, master of the wardrobe to King Henry the 
Fourth. By marriage it came to the family of Coningsby ; and was by Lord Coningsby, in the time 
of William III, materially altered, elegantly fitted up, and the grounds laid out in the Dutch taste 
then prevalent. 

It is now the property of Lord Viscount Maiden, eldest son of the Earl of Essex, who has 
been for some time engaged in restoring it to its original magnificent state of architecture, which 
was partly Gothic and partly Saxon. 

The park is eight miles in compass, well stocked with deer, and having a broad pool three- 
quarters of a mile long, between two great woods. The dam, by which it is formed, is made over 
a valley, cost 800, and was finished (200 hands being employed) within a fortnight. A river runs 


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Page 52. A view of the Chapel at Hampton Court, Herefordshire. 

See p. 5, fly-leaves, for order from Lord Maiden for a finished drawing of 
the 'Chaple'. 

This is probably the water-colour now in the Manchester Whitworth Insti- 
tute, No. 259, catalogued as ' Cassiobury House View of Chapel ' (edition 1909). 

P a g e 53- Hampton Court, Herefordshire. 

See p. 5, fly-leaves, for order from Lord Maiden for a finished drawing of 
this subject. 

This is probably the water-colour now in the Manchester Whitworth Insti- 
tute, No. 258, catalogued as ' Cassiobury House Front '. 

Page 54. View of ' Ross ', Herefordshire. 
55. Ross Market Place (Plate xxxvi). 

This drawing was cut out and loose. It probably belongs here. See order 
for finished drawing for Mr. Lambert, p. 5, fly-leaves. 

Page 56. 'Goodrich Castle/ on the River Wye. 

57. Missing. 

58. River, with steep banks ; probably the River Wye. 

59. Another view of same river. 

60. Blank. 

61. River scene. 

62. ' Monmouth.' 

63. ' Monow Bridge, Monmouth ' : sometimes called Gateway and Bridge, 


64. Blank. 

65. 'West Gate Bridge, Gloucester' (Plate xxxvn). 

66. Blank. 

67. Buildings in Market Place (?), with figures under arch and in doorway 

of shop on right. Bust in circular niche in foreground building. 

68. Blank. 

68a. Gloucester Cathedral, from the South-west. Top of a pinnacle drawn 
in detail at side of drawing, with ' All alike ' written over it. 

69. Blank. 

. Tower of Church with open-worked battlements, the porch embel- 

quite through the park, the channel of which, for a considerable length, is hewn out of the rock. 
This enriches vast tracts of land which before were unproductive. There are numerous gardens 
and canals, plantations of timber, warrens, decoys, sheep-walks, pastures for cattle, &c., which 
supply the house with all necessaries and conveniences. 

In some maps we have found this place marked by the name of Hampton Charles." 


lishcd with pinnacles, and carved niches in the abutment. Probably 
the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, at Northleach, Gloucester- 

(This drawing seems to mark the end of the South Wales sketching-tour; 
most of the following drawings were made during the short tour in Kent, in 
1798, referred to above that of Brecknock Castle (p. 91) was found among the 
loose leaves, so that it is not now in its original place.) 

Page 70. Missing. 

71. Blank. 

713. The Corona, Canterbury Cathedral, with the chair of S. Augustine l 
(Plate xxxvin). 

72. Tomb of Cardinal Morton in the Crypt, Canterbury Cathedral. 

(Exhibited Drawings, No. 634, N. G., as 'Crypt, Canterbury'.) 

73. Blank. 
73a. A Cottage. 

74. Mill and stream, rough water. Pencil, part in water-colour; grey 

underpainting of shadows, yellow and dull red on roof. (Oxford 
Loan Collection, 87, 15.) 

75. Old Cottages and sheds beside river ; another view of same buildings. 

76. Aylesford Bridge, Kent. Part in. water-colour, worked like the 

drawing of Maidstone Bridge (p. 94). For a water-colour of this 
bridge, see xxxn, H. 

77. Aylesford Bridge and Church. 

78. Blank. 

78a. Part of Aylesford Bridge, with horses, and figure in a punt. 

79. A bend of the River Medway, with sailing-boat; wooded banks. 

Pencil, with a few dainty touches of colour. 

81 1 Missing. 
83. Blank. 

83. Mansion, with pond in foreground : cart with two horses, dogs, &c., 

on the road. 

84. Missing. 

85. Blank. 

853. A Cottage, with figure. 

86. Missing. 

87. Blank. 

873. Landscape, with figures. 

1 I have to thank Mr. C. F. Bell for the correct description of this drawing. 



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89! Blank. 

(The following loose leaves appear to have belonged to this book, but I was 
unable to place them in their original positions. No doubt they constitute some 
of the missing pages noted above.) 

Page 91. ' Brecknock Castle '. (Exhibited Drawings, No. 623 b., N. G). 
(Probably the missing p. 42.) 

92. Gateway of Allington Castle, near Maidstone. 

93. Another view of same. Pencil, part in water-colour. (Exhibited 

Drawings, No. 806, N. G., described (erroneously) as ' Woodcroft 
Castle, Northamptonshire '). 

94. Maidstone Bridge, with houses and shipping. Pencil, part in water- 

colour (Plate xxxix). (Oxford Loan Collection, 90, 12.) 
On back, written by Turner in ink ' Maidstone bridge, no '. 

95. West side of Allington Castle, near Maidstone. Pencil, part finished 

in water-colour (Plate XL). 
On back, in ink 'Alington Castle, on the Medway, 109'. 

96. A Kiln. Pencil, part in water-colour. 

97. Christchurch, Oxford (Plate XLI). Pencil, part in water-colour. 

Written in pencil at foot 'Christ Church Coll.'; on the sky to 
right ' Venables (?), Neat Wines', and 'horses to stand at leaving 
by W.', &c. (Oxford Loan Collection, 86, 3.) 

98. West Mailing Abbey. 

99. ' North West ' view of ' St. Mary RedclifT , Bristol. Written beside 

drawing, ' The stone grey and brown ', and ' Queen with Crown 
and Book'. (Exhibited Drawings, No. 5243., N. G.) 


So little is known of Reynolds's work before he went to Italy that it gives 
us much pleasure to be able to present to the members of the Walpole Society 
reproductions of two hitherto unpublished and undescribed portraits belonging 
to this early period of the great artist's career. Both these portraits are signed 
and dated, one 1747, the other 1748, so that, together, they give us a good 
idea of Reynolds's achievement and capacities before he went to Italy in 1749 
to study the works of the Italian masters. They show how much he had learned, 
directly, from his master, Thomas Hudson, and indirectly, from Richardson's 
theories and the example of William Gandy, of Exeter. And if they do not 
entirely confirm Hudson's opinion that his pupil's style of painting was not 
so good after he had been abroad as it was before he went, they explain at 
least the grounds for Hudson's disappointment with the changes produced in 
his pupil's style by his foreign studies. 

Cotton has shown (in his Sir Joshua Reynolds and his Works) from the 
evidence of Reynolds's father's letters that the young artist did not, as was 
generally supposed, remove to Plymouth Dock immediately after his quarrel 
with Hudson in 1743. After a few months' absence Reynolds returned to 
London and was reconciled to Hudson, 'who', as Cotton says, 'seems not 
only to have received him kindly, but to have consulted him upon the pictures 
he had in hand, and also to have introduced him to the society of the most 
eminent artists of the metropolis ' (p. 61). After his father's death, on Christmas 
Day, 1746, Reynolds seems to have worked partly in London and partly at 
Plymouth. His London address, according to Malone (Memoir, I3c., p. xi), 
was in St. Martin's Lane, 'nearly opposite to May's buildings'; when at 
Plymouth he lived with his sisters, who had removed there from Plympton 
after their father's death. It was at Plymouth that Reynolds became acquainted 
with Captain (afterwards Viscount) Keppel, with whom he sailed in the 
Centurion on May n, 1749. The portrait of Captain Keppel he painted at 
Corsica before the following December was published in the Walpole Society's 
first volume. 

Malone tells us that the first of Reynolds's performances which brought 
him any considerable notice was a portrait of Captain the Honble. John 
Hamilton, painted in 1746. This three-quarter length (50x40 in.) is now in 

VI. P 


the possession of the Duke of Abercorn. It was exhibited at the British 
Institution, 1813, and at the Royal Academy, 1875 (No. 114). Malone tells us 
that when Reynolds saw this portrait at a late period of his life ' he was 
surprised to find it so well done ' (p. xi). 

The portrait of Captain Roberts, R.N. (Plate XLII), which we are now 
enabled to publish by the courtesy of its present owner, Mrs. Watkin, is 
included in Cotton's list, who dates it by a curious misprint 1847, giving as 
his authority 'Reynolds' Private Notes'. Fortunately the picture is signed 
and dated, ' JOSHUA REYNOLDS PINXIT 1747.' It is of the usual head and 
shoulders size 30 x 24-! in., the portrait being enclosed within a painted oval. 
It is painted with astonishing vigour and ease. Its breadth and frankness of 
treatment I must confess surprised me. No one who knows Reynolds's hand 
would hesitate for a moment to accept it as his work, even without the signature, 
but unless it was dated few would have ventured to suggest that it might have 
been painted so early in the artist's career. Its breadth of treatment is, I think, 
a general quality in all Reynolds's work, its vigour, frankness, and directness 
are qualities rarely found in the work produced after his visit to Italy. But the 
chief difference between this and his later work is in the colour in the lightness 
and purity of the flesh tints in the lighter parts of the face, and the lightness and 
thinness of the shadows, which afterwards became usually very dark and 
opaque. Probably the impression of frankness and directness, to which I have 
already alluded, is connected with this colour system, though it is emphasized 
by the swiftness and apparent ease with which the portrait has been painted. 

The only other painting by Reynolds of this date which I find recorded is 
'A Boy Reading', which was lent by the Earl of Normanton to the Royal 
Academy (Old Masters) in 1883. This is also a 30x23! in., and it is said to 
be signed and dated, ' 1747 Jo. Reynolds pinxit Nov.' 

Messrs. Graves and Cronin give the date 1748 to a portrait of Mrs. Field, 
the sister-in-law of Reynolds's uncle, which Cotton says ' must have been painted 
before he went to Italy '. He adds that ' the carnations are of great delicacy 
and clearness, and the features well defined, although not so strongly pro- 
nounced by means of that depth of shadow which he afterwards adopted from 
the works of Titian and other Italian masters' (p. 60). This picture was lent 
by Mr. E. R. Pearce to the Grosvenor Gallery, 1884 (No. 195), and it has since 
passed into the possession of Sir Robert Edgcumbe. 

Messrs. Graves and Cronin also give the date 1748 to Reynolds's portrait of 
himself, with his hand shading his eyes, now in the National Portrait Gallery 
(No. 41). But this date is purely conjectural. In Leslie and Taylor's Life, 13 c., 
it is stated that Mr. Carpenter attributed this portrait to a later date (vol. i, 
p. 34), and judging from the opaqueness of the shadows the present writer is 
inclined to think that he was probably correct. 




(Reproduced by the courtesy of Mrs. IVatkiif) 























These are all single figure portraits, either half or three-quarter lengths. 
The first group Reynolds seems to have painted was that of the Eliot Family, 
which Malone says was painted ' about the same time ' as the Captain Hamilton 
referred to above. Whether this expression means that it was painted in 1746, 
as Messrs. Graves and Cronin seem to have supposed, or whether it was painted 
in 1747, as seems more probable, I can offer no opinion as I have not seen the 
painting. This group was lent by the Earl of St. Germans to the Royal 
Academy (Old Masters) in 1876 (No. 3), when it was described as ' Richard 
and Harriot Eliot and their Children, with Mrs. Goldsworthy and the Hon. 
Capt. John Hamilton '. The canvas is a small one, being only 33 x 44 in., so 
none of the figures can be more than 12 or 18 inches in height. It was engraved 
in 1823 by S. W. Reynolds. The general idea of the composition seems to 
have been taken from Van Dyck's ' Herbert Family Group ', but the scene has 
been changed from indoors to the open air. Richard Eliot (who died in 1748) 
is seated with his wife by his side, and surrounded by his three sons and five 
daughters. Captain Hamilton is introduced on the left carrying one of the 
little girls on his back. Three stone steps raise the father and mother to an 
appropriate position of eminence, the eldest son, Edward Eliot, standing beside 
his mother on the second step, while the others are grouped round them either 
on the ground or on the steps: 

This seems to have been the first composition of several figures which 
Reynolds attempted. Its success must have spurred him on to attempt a similar 
feat on a larger scale. The group of ' Thomas and Martha Neate with their 
Tutor', which is here published for the first time (Plate XLIII), is probably the 
first group approaching life-size which Reynolds painted. The canvas measures 
66| x 71 in., and is signed and dated, ' JA REYNOLDS PINXIT 1748.' 

The group is placed in a landscape, the two children, Thomas Neate and 
his sister, being raised on a stone step similar to that employed in the Eliot 
Family group. Martha Neate stands upright in the centre, holding a basket 
of flowers in her left hand, her right holding a pink scarf which falls over 
her arm. She has dropped some of the flowers out of her basket, some lying 
at her feet, and some caught in the folds of her white satin dress. There is 
a bright blue ribbon tied round her waist. A small lace cap covers the back of 
her curly auburn hair. She seems to be about five or six years of age, and she 
looks straight at the spectator with that arch look of suppressed merriment 
which we find in the 'Miss Bowies', now in the Wallace Collection, and in so 
many of Reynolds's delightful portraits of children. 

Her brother, a lad some two years older, kneels on her right picking up 
the flowers she has dropped. His expression is graver than that of his sister, 
but his thoughtful face is as charming, as truthful and convincing, as any boy's 
portrait painted by Reynolds in after-life. The boy's rather elaborate blue 



Van Dyck costume is trimmed with ermine. A yellow (or light brown) scarf 
is tied round his waist. His grey felt hat trimmed with blue lies on the ground 
beside him. He kneels on his right knee, his left hand holding some of the 
flowers he has just picked up. 

In front of the two children is placed a lamb round whose neck they have 
hung flowers and a blue ribbon. The lamb's figure is the weakest point in the 
picture ; it is badly observed and wooden, but it forms an important link in the 
design, breaking the straight lines of the stone step and connecting the two 
children with the tall figure of their tutor. 

The tutor stands in the right of the picture, his left leg raised on the 
step, his right placed on the grass. His body faces towards the children, but 
his head looks over his left shoulder at the spectator. He is a young, clean- 
shaven man, wearing his own hair. He is dressed in dark brown, the only 
touch of positive colour in his costume being the corner of his blue satin waist- 
coat which peeps out from under his coat. He holds a book in his left hand, his 
right being placed on his breast. 

The horizon is low down in the picture, so that most of the tutor's figure 
is relieved against the sky. The left half of the background is filled with 
a dark brown pillar and dark red curtain, the straight line of the pillar which 
falls just behind the head of the girl being broken by the freely painted branches 
and foliage of a tree. 

The general colour effect of the picture is higher in key and brighter and 
fresher than in Reynolds's later works. There is also less contrast between 
the lights and shadows. The flesh, both in the faces and hands, is delightfully 
fresh in colour, the warm shadows being mostly put in with burnt sienna, with 
Venetian red for the accents, reinforced, in the girl's head, with Vandyck 

The handling of the paint is vigorous and free, loose and fluid in the back- 
ground and in the tutor's figure and face, and more solidly built up in the chief 
lights which fall on the boy and girl. The lovely carnations of the young girl's 
face and neck, and her vivid white dress set off by the bright colours of the 
flowers and ribbons, are skilfully connected with the highest lights in the sky. 
The gay rich colours prove the original bent of Reynolds's genius. He was 
a born colorist, before the example of the Bolognese painters and their theories 
about ' historical colouring ' led him to paint for many years almost in mono- 
chrome, and to regard positive colour as one of the deadly artistic sins. It was 
only towards the end of his career that his natural love of colour asserted itself 
again, but he could never recapture the freshness and careless gaiety of colour 
of his youthful work. 

Of the artist's relations with the Neate family and the conditions under 
which the picture was painted we know almost nothing. There is a tradition in 


the Neate family that the father of the two children was a friend of the young 
artist, and a diary once in the possession of Miss Eleanor Neate recorded a 
payment to Reynolds for a portrait, but the sum mentioned was thought too 
small to apply to this portrait group. An old label on the back of the picture 
gives us a little help ; it says : 

' Boy the paternal grandfather of the Rev. A. Neate. 
Girl sister of the above married - - Williams of , Esq re 
Tall figure Needham tutor of the Boy. 

Painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds'. 

The picture is mentioned in Cotton's list of Reynolds's works (p. 55), as 
' Thomas Neate and his Sister. Children of M r Neate, of Binfield, Berks, with 
their tutor '. Graves and Cronin copy this entry, altering the name, evidently in 
error, to ' Neete '. They say that it belonged in 1857 to the Rev. A. Neate, and 
add that ' a portrait of the Neete (Neate) family by Reynolds was offered to the 
National Portrait Gallery, 17 Jan. 1870, by Miss Mary Neete (Neate) of Bampton, 
Farringdon '. It passed by inheritance to Commander Charles B. Neate, R.N., 
who died in 1916, and we have to thank his son, Captain Arthur C. Burnaby 
Neate, R.F.A., for his kindness in permitting us to photograph and publish this 
interesting example of Reynolds's work. 

The two children represented in the portrait are Thomas Neate and his 
sister Martha, who became afterwards Mrs. Williams. The earliest mention of 
Thomas Neate we can find in the ordinary books of reference is the statement, in 
Burke's Landed Gentry, that his daughter Amelia married Allen Edward Young, 
Esq., of Orlingbury, Co. Northampton, in 1804. He is mentioned in Lyson's 
Magna Britannia (vol. i, p. 241) as living in Pope's House, Binfield, Co. Berks, 
in 1806, but it is not stated how long he had been established there. Pope 
resided at Binfield till he purchased the villa at Twickenham in 1719, so the 
Neates may have been living there in 1748, when Reynolds painted the two 
children, but we have found no evidence bearing on the point. In 1807 Thomas 
Neate's wife died (Gentleman s Magazine, 1807, p. 789). He himself died in 
March 1825, aged 84 (Gentleman's Magazine, 1825), so he was born in 1741, and 
was seven years old when Reynolds painted his portrait. His will is preserved 
at Somerset House. It was made on November 2, 1814. In it he mentions his 
sister, Mrs. Martha Williams, so she too lived to a good old age, and a ' Miss 
Mary Williams of Monmouth '. Other names mentioned are his son, the Rev. 
Thomas Neate and his wife Catherine, his two unmarried daughters, Charlotte 
and Martha (Charlotte became the wife of Mr. John Hodgson by the time the 
will was proved), and his married daughter, Amelia, wife of Mr. Young of 
Orlingbury. He seems to have been in easy circumstances, for besides the 


house and land he left a sum of .7000, shares in a lead company, gold and silver 
cups and plate, a chariot and horses, saddle horses, &c. 

One would naturally like to know more about the bewitching young girl 
who became in after life Mrs. Martha Williams, but we have not been able to 
discover any further information. 



Wtlbeck Abbey Collection ;No. 187) 




Probably by Marcus Gheeraerts the younger. 

Three-quarter length standing to sinister in an elaborate night-rail, fastened 
at the neck, otherwise partly open to the waist ; it is embroidered in coloured 
silks with flowers, leaves, and insects, has a point-lace collar and cuffs, and is 
also edged down the front with point-lace ; white apron. Her hair is brushed 
back from the forehead, and falls in two masses over her shoulders that on 
the left is already unplaited, and she is engaged in undoing the plait on the 
right ; pearl drop in each ear ; a jewelled ring on the third finger of right hand, 
a plain red circlet on the fourth finger of the left ; on her right wrist a bracelet 
set four square with pearls and jewels alternately ; in front of her is a dressing 
table covered with a red and white embroidered cloth ; on it lie an ivory comb, 
a brush, and a mirror in which the lace of her left cuff is reflected. Green 
curtain in background, on the sinister side of which is pinned a ribbon, from 
which depend a key and an octagonal case probably containing a watch. 

Canvas 36! x 26| ins. 

Formerly in the Earl of Southampton's collection at Titchfield Abbey. 
Thence removed to Bulstrode (having been inherited by Elizabeth Duchess of 
Portland, great-grand-daughter of the fourth Earl of Southampton), and thence 
transferred to Welbeck Abbey. 

In respect of face this portrait much resembles one (also called Countess of 
Essex) reproduced as plate LIII in Mr. J. J. Foster's The Stuarts (1902), from an 
original belonging to Mr. Charles Butler. 



ON the i2th of November, 1759, the artists of London met to appoint and 
choose a Committee to make arrangements for holding an annual exhibition of 
their works. The painter who headed the list of the Committee which was then 
chosen was Joshua Reynolds, and Mr. Francis Milner Newton was appointed 
secretary to the Committee. In Newton's minute of this meeting he speaks of 
the body of artists as ' this Society ', but it was evidently a very loosely consti- 
tuted Society. The chief business of this 'Society' before 1759 seems to have 
been the holding of an annual feast on St. Luke's Day, a festival which had 
been celebrated in London since Van Dyck's time, if not earlier. Probably all 
artists who happened to be in London at the time of this festival were eligible 
to attend the gathering, and the ' Society ' which called the meeting of the 
T2th of November, 1759, was apparently constituted on the same liberal basis. 

The exhibition which was the outcome of this meeting was opened to the 
public on the 2ist of April, 1760. The catalogue described it as an exhibition of 
Pictures, Sculptures, &c., 'of the Present Artists' a correct and non-committal 
expression. The exhibitors apparently were any artists living in Great Britain 
who chose to submit any of their works to the Committee, and whose works 
were accepted for exhibition. After this first exhibition the ' Society ' seems to 
have been confined only to this body of exhibitors. In a letter addressed to 
the Society of Arts, &c., on I2th May, 1760, the chairman of the Committee 
returns thanks for the use of the exhibition-room in the name of ' the Artists 
whose works appeared in the late Exhibition '. Before the next exhibition this 
body became divided, one set of artists continuing to use the room of the Society 
of Arts, the other hiring the Great Room in Spring Gardens, and calling 
themselves, on the catalogue of their exhibition, ' the Society of Artists of 
Great Britain '. The date of the opening of this second exhibition was the 
9th of May, 1761. The question of the enrolment of the Society was not 
raised till November 1763, and it was not actually incorporated till 26th 
January, 1765. 

For the sake of convenience we may be allowed to speak of the Papers of 
the exhibition society which began operations on the i2th of November, 1759, 
as the papers of the Society of Artists of Great Britain, and after these explana- 

VI. Q 


tions it is to be hoped that no confusion will be caused by doing so. This 
Society continued in existence till 1807, though its last exhibition was held in 
1791. The papers and books of the Society then came into the hands of 
Mr. Charles Taylor, the son and executor of Isaac Taylor, the last secretary 
of the Society, who published some extracts from them in The Literary Pano- 
rama, vol. iii, 1807-1808, pp. 809-813, 1013-1014, 1226-1229, and then trans- 
ferred them, on the 22nd of February, 1808, to the care of Mr. Robert Pollard, 
the last surviving member of the Society. In 1836 Mr. Pollard handed these 
documents to the Royal Academy of Arts, and Pye (in his Patronage of British 
Art, p. 136) prints the following receipt which was given for them : 

' Royal Academy of Arts, London. 
28th Oct. 1836. 

I hereby acknowledge to have received of Mr. Robert Pollard, fellow and 
director of the Royal Incorporated Society of Artists of Great Britain, 

ist. A Box, containing the papers and letters of the said Society, from 

2nd. A parcel of books, containing the minutes of the directors, and of the 
general meetings of the Society. 

3rd. His majesty's royal charter, contained in a case, being the original 
documents of the said Society. 


By Order, HENRY HOWARD, R.A. Sec.' 

These documents, since they passed into the possession of the Royal 
Academy, have been accessible to all engaged in historical research. Samuel 
Redgrave must certainly have consulted these papers, for there is a good deal 
of information in his Dictionary of Artists of the English School which could have 
been derived from no other source. Redgrave's information, however, has 
proved to be, on a careful examination of the papers, so often inaccurate that 
one is led to assume that his study of these documents must have been rather 
hasty and careless. 

A more recent historian, Mr. William Whitley, has made better use of the 
papers. All the facts relating to Gainsborough's connexion with the Society of 
Artists are given fully and accurately in Mr. Whitley's admirable Life of Thomas 
Gainsborough. But Mr. Whitley was concerned only with the references to 
Gainsborough among the papers. He was not concerned with the historical 
value of the papers as a whole. 

The attention of the Committee of the Walpole Society was first drawn to 
these papers by Mr. George Clausen, R.A., in 1913. Permission to examine the 
documents was readily and most courteously granted to two members of 
the Committee by the President and Council of the Royal Academy. When 


Mr. C. E. Hugh'es and Mr. Finberg came to examine the papers they found that 
they had all been carefully preserved exactly in the order in which they had 
been received by the Academy when they first came into its possession. There 
were two sets of Minute Books, one dealing with the Directors' meetings, the 
other with the general meetings of the Society, while the correspondence, 
accounts, and miscellaneous papers were done up in separate brown-paper 
parcels. Before one could grasp the full significance of the whole it became 
evident that these three sets of documents would have to be brought together in 
strict chronological order and collated. It was impossible to do this with the 
documents themselves, as the Academy very naturally did not wish to have 
the original arrangement of the parcels disturbed. It therefore became necessary 
to transcribe the whole of the documents before arrangements could be made to 
publish them, or any part of them, or even before the Committee could feel 
confident that they were of sufficient historical value to warrant publication. 

The difficult and laborious task of making such a transcription was under- 
taken by Mrs. Finberg, who began it in January 1916, and copied the last 
sheets in July of the same year, the Secretary, Librarian, and Registrar of the 
Academy very kindly giving her every assistance in their power. Mrs. Finberg's 
transcripts were then arranged in chronological order, and she completed 
the work by compiling a full index of the names of artists mentioned in the 

When the whole of these documents were in this way reduced to coherence 
and order, their historical value and interest became clearly manifest. The 
plain unvarnished history of the first exhibition society formed by British artists 
was found to be revealed in detail for the first time. Fresh light was thrown on 
the series of internal dissensions which in a few years wrecked the Society. 
The names of students admitted to work at the Life and Plaster Academies of 
the Society, the applications for charity, and the lists of payments to distressed 
artists, their widows and children, supplied new biographical information about 
a number of artists. Taken together, these papers furnish us with a most 
welcome addition to our knowledge of a very obscure period in the history of 
British art and artists. As a source of information about the lesser known 
artists of the time they are especially valuable. 

It has been decided to publish as much of Mrs. Finberg's transcription of 
these papers as seems of historical interest, and although parts will be sum- 
marized, the original wording of minutes, resolutions, &c., will be preserved 
where there seems to be any advantage in doing so. Care has been taken to 
omit no artist's name which occurs in any connexion among the papers. 

We publish in this volume the first instalment, which covers the period 
from November 1759 to July 1761. The remainder will be published in future 
volumes as it is found convenient. 





Turks Head Tavern in Gerrard Street Soho. 
Monday 12 th November. 1759. 

At a General Meeting for considering a Proposal made by the Artists at their 
Anniversary Meeting on the 5 th of November at the Foundling Hospital, in order to 
encourage Artists whose Abilities and Attainments may justly raise them to Distinction 
who otherwise might languish in Obscurity and that their several Abilitys may be brought 
to Public View. 

RESOLVED. That once in every year, on a day in the second week of April at a place 
that shall be appointed by a Committee for carrying this Design into Execution, to be 
chosen Annually. Every Painter, Sculptor, Architect, Engraver, Chaser, Seal-cutter, and 
Medallist may exhibit their several Performances. 

That besides the above Intention of Producing to Public View encourageing the Arts 
and paying the Charge that may attend the Exhibition of the Performances of the Artists. 

The intention of this Meeting is to endeavour to procure a sum to be distributed in 
Charity towards the support of those Artists whose Age and Infirmity's or other lawful 
Hindrances prevent from being any longer candidates for Fame. 

It is therefore Resolved. That the sum of one Shilling be taken Daily of each Person 
who may come to visit the said performances. 

Resolved. That every Artist do pay Half a Crown on his producing his Performance 
to the Committee to whom it is referred to make any farther Regulations in order to carry 
this Design into Execution. 

Resolved. That the Number of the Committee be sixteen to consist of Artists of the 
following Denominations and the Secretary, viz' 

6 Painters 2 Engravers i Medallist 

2 Sculptors i Seal Cutter The Secretary 

2 Architects i Chaser 

The following Gentlemen having been Ballotted for were chosen for a Committee for 
the Manageing this Design from this Day to the 2 nd Monday in May or till another 
Committee may be chosen, viz' 

(Francis) 1 HAYMAN 

(Samuel) WALE 
(Richard) DALTON 


(Joseph) WILTON (Richard) YEO Medallist 

(William) COLLINS I Scul P tors 

1 Christian names when printed in italic between brackets are not in the original text ; they are 
supplied to facilitate identification. 

(William) CHAMBERS ) . ... 

-r c Architects 


p . (Christopher) SEATON Seal Engraver 

(Robert) STRANGE ) t , 

ir-j .A D i Engravers 
(Edward) ROOKER 

(George Michael) MOSER Chaser 


Mr. NEWTON accepting of the Office of Secretary, Mr. (Nathaniel) HONE was added he 
being the next in Number. 

Resolved. That five of the said Committee be a Quorum. 

Resolved. That the next General Meeting of this Society be on the last Wednesday 
in March next, at such Place as the Committee shall appoint. 

Resolved. That the Committee do meet on Saturday the I st of December next, at 
6 o'clock precisely at the Turk's Head in Gerrard Street. 


1 Dec. 1759. 1 This Evening the Committee met, the following Gent. Present. 

Messrs. Chambers, Collins, Dalton, Hayman, Hone, Moser, Newton, Rooker, Seaton, 
Strange, Wale, Wilson, Wilton, Yeo. 

It being proposed to make a choise of a Chairman Mr. HAYMAN was chosen Nem: Con: 

Resolved Nem. Con. That no Picture coppyed from a Picture, or Print from a Print, 
or Drawing from a Drawing, Engraving from an Engraving, Medal from a Medal, Chasing 
from a Chasing or a Coppy from a Model or any Coppy be admitted. 

Resolved. That this Committee do meet on Saturday 22 nd . Adjourned. 

F. M. NEWTON Secy. 

22 Dec. 1759. At a Committee Present Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Collins, Dalton, Hone, Newton, Rooker, Seaton, Strange, Wale, Wilson, 
Wilton, Yeo. 

[The Minutes of last Committee read and confirmed. 

It was resolved to make application to the Noblemen and Gentlemen of the Society of 
Arts to obtain their Room for the Exhibition. Adjourned to Saturday, igth Jany. 1760?] 

F. M. NEWTON. Secy. 

19 Jan. 1760. At a Committee Present Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Chambers, Collins, Dalton, Moser, Rooker, Sandby, Seaton, Wale, Wilson, 
Wilton, Yeo. 

Resolved. That Mr. (Samuel) Johnson may have the Form of a Letter drawn up by 
this Society to correct, in order to be sent to the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, &c. 
to sollicite the Use of their Room for the Exhibition. Adjourned to Sat. 2 ud Feby. 

2 Feb. 1760. At a Committee Present Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Chambers, Dalton, Hone, Moser, Reynolds, Seaton, Strange, Wale, Wilson 
Wilton, Yeo. 

[The next Committee meeting, for purpose of 'perusing the Letter given to Mr. 
Johnson for his correction ', was fixed for Saturday, gth Feby., but postponed till the 26th.] 

26 Feb. 1760. At a Committee Present Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Moser, Newton, Reynolds, Rooker, Seaton, Strange, Wale, Wilson, Wilton. 

1 All meetings are at the Turk's Head, unless another meeting-place is specified. 
A precis only is given when the entries are in square brackets. 


Resolved. That the following letter with the Plan inclosed be sent to the Society for 
the Encouragement of Arts, &c., and that it be signed by Mr. Hayman as Chairman, and 
that it be directed to the Secretary of the Society 


The Artists of this City having resolved to raise a sum for Purposed of Charity 

by the Annual Exhibition of their Works entreat the Society to allow them the Use of 
their Room from the 7 th of April to the 19 th . This favour they consider as very important. 
The Publick concurrence of the Society will give to a new Practice that Countenance which 
Novelty must always need, and the Arts will gain Dignity from the Protection of those 
whom the World has already learned to respect. 

I am, Sir, Your most Humble Servant 

F. HAYMAN. Chairman.' 
The Plan inclosed. 

' It has been lamented that notwithstanding the general disposition to encourage 
Artists, now prevailing in this Nation, many Men whose Abilitys and Attainments might 
justly raise them to Distinction, languish in Obscurity ; there being no certain or establish'd 
method by which Regard may be modestly Sollicited, or the Publick Eye attracted to merit. 

A Proposal was therefore made to the Artists at their Annual Meeting on St. Luke's 
Day, 1759, that every Painter, Sculptor, Architect, Engraver, Enchaser, Seal Cutter and 
Medallist should exhibit Once a Year, at a Place appointed, a Specimen of his Art, that the 
Judges and Patrons of Merit may have at Once under their View the present State of 
the Arts in England. 

Eleganc and Ingenuity are most valuable when they contribute to the Purposes of 
Virtue ; it is therefore resolved that the just advantage of this Exhibition shall be destin'd 
to the Support of those Artists whose Age, Infirmities or other lawful Hindrances suffer 
them to be no longer Candidates for Praise. A Shilling shall be taken at the Door, from 
every One that enters, and the sum so collected, shall be placed in the Hands of Trustees 
chosen by the Artists, and publickly declared in the Daily Papers.' 

18 March, 1760. At a Committee Present Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Collins, Dalton, Hone, Moser, Newton, Reynolds, Seaton, Strange, Wale, 
Wilson, Wilton, Yeo. 

Letter received from the Society of Arts : 


I am order'd by the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & 
Commerce to acquaint you that the Proposition sent in by you as Chairman of the Com- 
mittee of Artists is accepted of by that Society, except that part which relates to the taking 
the shilling at the Door. The Society have consented that such Exhibition be from the 
2i 8 ' Day of April to the 3 rd Day of May next ensuing. 

I am. &c. 

GEO: Box. 
To Mr. Fra: Hayman. Secy.' 

Resolved. That a general meeting be called Wednesday Sevennight 26 th inst. 

26 March, 1761 (71760). At a General Meeting, Present several Gentlemen- 
Mr. HAYMAN in the chair. 

Resolved. That a Letter be sent to all those Gentlemen who have sett down their 
Names as follows 



This is to acquaint you that next Wednesday the 2 nd April is appointed for 
the last (?next) General Meeting of the Artists. You are desired to attend at 6 o'clock in 
the evening.' 

2 April, 1760. General Meeting. Present several gentlemen Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Resolved. That Tuesday sevennight be the Day for sending the several Performances 
and that they be sent to the Society's Office in the Strand. 

That every Artist send his name and the subject of his Performance. 

That a Catalogue be printed and that the price be 6 d . 

Order'd. That the Day for sending the Performances be advertised.' 

(The Exhibition was opened on aist April, 1760, in the Room of the Society of Arts, which 
at that time was in the Strand, opposite Beaufort Buildings (Pye, 92 n.). A List of the Artists 
exhibiting is given in Pye (p. 93). 'The objection raised by the Society to taking money at the 
door of the exhibition was removed by admitting the public gratis, and charging sixpence for 
each catalogue sold ' (Pye, p. 93).) 

LOOSE PAPERS. No. 7. Society's Papers, &c. &c. 1760. 

(1) Account of the Receipts & Disbursements at the Public Exhibition, April 
21" 1760. (See below.) 

(2) M r Reeves Printer his seconde Bill order'd to be paid & paid 17 th May. 1760. 

(3) Reevs Bill 1760 for printing. 

First Bill not paid as over Charged. 

No. 7 (i). Account of the Receipt and the Disbursments at the Publick Exhibition 
April 21" 1760. . 


For 6582 Catalogues at 6 d each 164 n o 
Disbursments .... 160 15 o 

Ballance remaining in Cash . 3 16 o 


s. d. 

To several Advertisements and Postage of Summondses . . 2 12 6 
Paid Mr. Shipleys Servant a Bill for sundry Expences i i -o given 

Ditto i-r-o 220 

Paid Mr. Shipley for extra Servants 120 

Given the Society's Porter . i i r 6 

To a Boy for going on several Errands 050 

Beer for the Men at several Times . . . 030 

Paid Mrs. Basston for her attendance . . 440 

Paid Mr. Langford's Man for his Trouble o 10 6 

Paid John Malin for himself and Son 10 10 o 

Paid Mr. Weston Carpenter for hanging the Pictures &c. . . i i o 

Paid Mr. Woodin for Windows broke o 13 6 

Paid for Constables o 15 o 


Paid Mr. Reeve his Bill for Printing the Catalogues . . . 36 n 6 

Paid Duty for Ditto at the Stamp Office 040 

A Piece of Plate presented to Mr. Newton 16 7 o 

Paid for the Purchase of 100-0-0 3 p r O Annuities 1759 

& Commission 82 2 6 

160 15 o 

12 May, 1760. At a Committee, Present Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Hone, Moser, Newton, Reynolds, Seaton, Strange, Wale, Wilson, Wilton, 

Resolved. That the following letter of thanks be sent to the Society signed by 
Mr. HAYMAN as Chairman and directed to Dr. Templeman the Secretary. 


You are requested by the Artists whose Works appeared in the late Exhibition 
to return their sincerest Thanks to the Society for the Use of their Room and the Honour 
of their Patronage. Whatever improvement the Arts of Elegance shall receive from the 
honest Emulation which publick Notice may excite will be justly ascribed to those by 
whose Example the Public has been influenced. 

I am, &c. 

F. HAYMAN, Chairman of the Committee.' 

Resolved. That a Present be made Mr. NEWTON for the Trouble and Care he has 
taken, and that he be desired to accept the same. That the Present do not exceed Twenty 
Guineas. That Mr. MOSER do attend Mr. NEWTON in the Choise of a Piece of Plate for the 
purpose above. 

Order'd. That Thanks be returned to Mr. JOHNSON for his great assistance to the 
Committee of Artists and that Mr. REYNOLDS return the same. 


(sgd) F. M. NEWTON. Secy. 

15 May, 1760. At a Committee, Present Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Chambers, Collins, Hone, Moser, Newton, Reynolds, Seaton, Strange, Wale, 
Wilson, Wilton, Yeo. 

[The Secretary was authorized to pay various small bills.] 

Resolved. That after the payment of all Expences the Ballance be apply'd to the 
advancement of the Academy. 

Resolved. That the Ballance be immediately laid out in the Stocks. 

Order'd. That a General Meeting of the Artists who exhibited be called on Friday, 
23 rd inst., at 8 o'clock in the Evening at the Turk's Head. 


(sgd) F. M. NEWTON. Secy. 

23 May, 1760. At a General Meeting. Present several Gentlemen. Mr. HAYMAN in 
the Chair. 

Mr. HAYMAN reported that after payment of all expenses & the Purchase of 100-0-0 
3% Annuities in the Bank & in the name of Mr. Francis Milner Newton there remained 
a balance of 3-16-0. 

Resolved. That the money be applied towards the advancement of the Arts. 


That Time be taken to consider in what Manner the Money may be best applied for 
the above Purpose. 

Resolved. That after the General Meeting has come to a Determination in what 
Manner the Money shall be applied. The Execution be wholly in the Committee. 

A Motion being made & seconded That all Future Committees should be open The 
Question being put it passed in the Negative. 

Adjourned to the 14 th Nov r . 

(sgd) F. M. NEWTON. Secy. 

7 Nov. 1760. At a Committee Present Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Collins, Dalton, Hone, Moser, Newton, Seaton, Wale, Wilson. 

Resolved. That it is the Opinion of this Committee that the present Sum of 100-0-0 
3 % Annuities now in the Bank for the use of this Society, and all Monies which may arrise 
at any future Exhibitions after paying the charge of the same, the Ballance to be laid out in 
the Funds, there to remain till it amounts to the sum of 500-0-0 & when that shall happen 
the Disposal of it to be determined by the Majority of this Society. 

Resolved. That a General Meeting be called Friday the 14"" at 6 o'clock and that it 
be mentioned to choose a Committee for the year ensuing. 

Resolved. That it is the Opinion of this Committee that the aranging or disposition 
of the Paintings, Sculptures, Models, Designs in Architecture, Engravings, &c., to Publick 
View, BE ABSOLUTELY left to the then subsisting Committee. 


(sgd) F. M. NEWTON. Secy. 

14 Nov. 1760. At a General Meeting. Present several Gentlemen. Mr. HAYMAN in 
the Chair. 

This Meeting proceeded to the Election of a Committee for the Year ensuing 
Mr. NEWTON being first elected Secretary. 

A Ballot being taken by Mr. LOCKMAN the following Gentlemen were chosen, viz* 

Messrs. HAYMAN . , . ( CHAMBERS 


(Edward) ROOKER 

(James) MARDELL 

DALTON Seal Engraver (Christopher) SEATON 

(Richard) WILSON Chaser . . MOSER 

WILTON Medallist . YEO 


Adjourned till summoned by the Committee 

(sgd) F. M. NEWTON. Secy. 

Painters . < 



25 Nov. 1760. This Evening the following chosen on the Committee met, viz'. 

Messrs. Hayman, Hone, M c Ardell, Moser, Newton, Reynolds, Seaton, Wale, Wilson, 
Wilton, Yeo. 

Mr. HAYMAN was unanimously elected Chairman and took the chair accordingly. 

Resolved. That Application be made to the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, 
&c., for the use of their Room. That the Exhibition be the beginning of June in order that 
the Pictures offer'd for the Premiums may be removed. The Artists having found great 

VI. R 



Inconvenience in lying under the Imputation of loosing those Premiums for which they 
were not Candidates. 

Great Inconvenience having been found by Inferior People crowding last Year. 

Resolved. That the Catalogue be a shilling and that no Person be admitted without 
taking one, the same to serve as a Ticket. 

Resolved. That the above Minutes be the substance of the Letter to be sent to the 
Society. Mr. REYNOLDS is desired to request Mr. JOHNSON to continue his good Offices to 
the Artists. 

Adjourned till summoned by the Chairman. 

(sgd) F. M. NEWTON. Secy. 

8 Dec. 1760. Committee Meeting. Present, Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Collins, Gwynn, Hone, M c Ardell, Moser, Newton, Reynolds, Rooker, Seaton, 
Wale, Wilson, Yeo. 

Mr. Chairman reported that he had received the Draught of a Letter from Mr. Johnson 
as requested last Meeting as follows 

' SIR. The favour conferred last Year on the Artists by the Society has encouraged 
them to solicite the use of their Room for a second Exhibition. 

This request may now be granted with less inconvenience to the Society, as the 
Exhibition will be defered to June a month in which the Meetings of the Society are more 
rare than in the Winter ; the Artists being desirous that the Pictures drawn for the prize 
should be removed, lest any man should a second time suffer the disgrace of having lost 
that which he never sought. The Exhibition of last year was crowded and incommoded 
by the intrusion of great Numbers whose stations and education made them no proper 
Judges of Statuary or Painting, and who were made idle and tumultuous by the opportunity 
of a shew. 

It is now therefore intended that the Catalogues shall be sold for a shilling each, and 
none allowed to enter without a Catalogue which may serve as a ticket for admission. 

These regulations which have been very deliberately formed will be doubtless thought 
expedient and useful, and the Artists flatter themselves that the improvement of National 
taste which will be promoted by comparing the works of different Performers, is not 

unworthy of the care of the Society. 

I am, &c.' 

The above Letter was agreed to with the addition of, the beginning of June. 
Order'd. That it be sent next Wednesday. 

Adjourned till an answer be received from the Society. 

16 Jan. 1761. A Committee, Present Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Chambers, Gwynn, M c Ardell, Moser, Newton, Reynolds, Seaton, Wale, 
Wilson, Wilton, Yeo. 

Mr. Chairman reported that he had received the Resolutions of the Society as 

' Strand. Dec r 23 rd 1760. 
Committee on the Artists Letter. 

The Letter from Mr. F. Hayman concerning an Exhibition was read. 
Agreed that the Artists have Permission to make an Exhibition in the Society's Room 
at such time and on such terms as the Society shall think proper & convenient. 

A Motion was made that the Time for the Exhibition do not exceed 4 weeks and in 


those weeks the Wednesday's to be excepted those Days being the Meetings of the 


Agreed to. 

The Question being put whether the Pictures painted for the Premiums may be 
exhibited at the same time with those sent in by the Artists. 
It passed in the Affirmative. 

Agreed that the four weeks Exhibition be within the time in which the Pictures painted 
for the Premiums are to hang up after their Decision. 

That the Exhibition be confined to the productions of the Artists resident in Great 
Britain or Ireland. 

That all Productions in the Polite Arts coming from the Committee of Artists be 

That the Productions of all other Artists in Polite Arts be also received. 

That no Production be received except the Name of the Artist be sent herewith. 

That the Exhibition be free & open to the Public at proper Hours & under proper 

The above resolutions being read were found such as could not be complied with. 

Resolved. That some other Place be thought on for the Exhibition. 

Resolved. That Messrs. REYNOLDS and (James) PAINE be desired to look out for 
a convenient place, and report the same to this Com ee at their next Meeting. 

Resolved. That the General Meeting be postponed till a proper Place is fixt on. 

16 Feb. 1761. Committee. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Chambers, Collins, Dalton, Gwynn, Hone, M c Ardell, Moser, Newton, Reynolds, 
Rooker, Seaton, Wale, Wilson, Wilton, Yeo. 

[A General Meeting to be called next Thursday at 6 o'clock.] 

19 Feb. 1761. General Meeting. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

The Committee have several Rooms under consideration. 

Resolved. That so soon as the Committee have determined on a Room it be 

Resolved. That a General Meeting be called 7 th April next. 

4 March, 1761. Committee. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Chambers, Collins, Gwynn, M c Ardell, Moser, Newton, Rooker, Seaton, Wale, 
Wilson, Wilton, Yeo. 

Messrs. CHAMBERS and WILTON reported that they had agreed with Mr. Cock for the 
use of his Room in Spring Gardens for the month of May at the sum of 40. 

Resolved. That an advertisement be put in the Front of the Daily Advertiser, the 
Public Advertiser ' and in the London Cronicle. 

The Artists of Great Britain and Ireland were desired to have their performances 
ready by the 27 th April. 

Note. A General Meeting will be held at this Place on Tuesday 7 th April next at 
6 o'clock in the Evening to which all Artists in Painting. Sculpture and Architecture are 


By order of the Committee 

Mem. Mrs. MERCIER was proposed to take care of the Miniatures. 

1 The advt. in Public Advertiser, 28 April, 1761, is given in full in Pye, p. 103. 

R 2 


11 March, 1761. Committee. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Chambers, Hone, MArdell, Moser, Newton, Reynolds, Rooker, Wale, Wilson, 

Took into consideration the Catalogue. 

Resolved. That there be a Frontispiece. The several Members of the Committee 
are desired to consider of a Proper Subject, & to bring them either in writing or a Sketch 
next Meeting. 

[Resolved. Mrs. Mercier appointed to look after the Miniatures. &c. The Exh n to 
open on Thursday. 7 th May.] 

18 March, 1761. Committee. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Chambers, Gwynn, Hone, MArdell, Moser, Newton, Seaton, Wale, 
Wilson, Yeo. 

Mr. HONE and Mr. WALE produced two Sketches for a Frontispiece. 

23 March, 1761. Committee. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Collins, Gwynn, Hone, M c Ardell, Moser, Reynolds, Seaton, Wale, Yeo. 

Resolved. That the Design approved l be finish'd and given to Mr. (Charles) GRIGNIPN 
(the Elder) to be done with all convenient speed. 

Resolved. That the advertisement be continued in the Daily and Public. 

7 April, 1761. General Meeting. Present 67 Gentlemen. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Resolved. That all the Money arrising from the Present Exhibition (after paying the 
necessary expences) be applied towards the Relief of Indigent Artists and their Familys. 

Mr. (William} HOGARTH having made a Proposal for the Society associating 

Unanimously agreed that this Society for the future should be called The Free 
Professors of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. 2 

And that the said Society should from henceforward enter into an amicable union in 
order to promote a mutual interest, and at proper Meetings concert such Measures as may 
best establish these Arts on a right Footing suitable to the Genius of this Country, &c. 

Resolved. That the Members of the Society be chosen by Ballot. 

14 April, 1761. Committee. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Chambers, Gwynn, Hone, M"Ardell, Moser, Newton, Rooker, Seaton, Wale, 
Wilson, Wilton, Yeo. 

Order'd. That a Book be bought to inscribe the Minutes of this Committee & the 
General Meetings. [Mr. NEWTON is desired to get the Minutes transcribed. The Adver- 
tisements to be continued in the Daily and Public Advertisers alternately.] 

21 April, 1761. Committee. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Chambers, Gwynn, Hone, M c Ardell, Moser, Newton, Seaton, Wale, 
Wilson, Yeo. 

' The approved design was by Samuel Wale. 

This proposal does not appear to have been acted on, as nothing further is heard of it. The 
artists who continued to exhibit with the Society of Arts, &c., afterwards called themselves ' The 
Free Society '. 


[Discussed details of Exhibition. Four men wanted besides Mrs. Mercier, viz. one for 
Room, one to sell the Catalogues, & two to keep the stairs. Catalogues at one shilling, 
with two prints designed by HOGARTH.] 

24 April, 1761. Committee. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Collins, Gwynn, Hone, M c Ardell, Moser, Newton, Reynolds, Rooker, Seaton, 

Wale, Wilson, Wilton, Yeo. 

Resolved. That it is the Opinion of this Committee that Mr. HOGARTH'S name should 

be omitted in the Advertisement, but to remain as at present if Mr. HOGARTH chooses it. 
Mr. REYNOLDS having mentioned a request from Lady Rockingham for the use of the 

Room for one Night for a Concert- 
Resolved. That she have the Room for one Night only for that purpose. 

30 April, 1761. Committee. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Chambers, Collins, Gwynn, Hone, MArdell, Moser, Newton, Reynolds, 
Rooker, Seaton, Wale, Wilson, Wilton, Yeo. 

Resolved. That those Artists who have exhibited this Year at the Society's Room in 
the Strand (if desirous) may be permitted to exhibit at the present Exhibition in Spring 
Gardens provided there is room left after all the Works of the Society at the Turk's Head 
be hung up all Duplicates excepted. 

Resolved. That it be recommended to the General Meeting to pass a Law to prevent 
the trimming on both sides. 

(The Exhibition was opened at the Great Room, Spring Gardens, Charing Cross, 

9 th May, 1761.) 

LOOSE PAPERS. No. 4. Society's Papers, Bills, &c., &c., in 1761. 

1. Mrs. Wynch. 1761. Bill for Dinners. 

2. Mr. Newton's Bill for printing. &c. Lewis printer. 1761. 

3. Weston 'Carpintor'. 1761. 

4. Newton. 1761. 

5. Mr. Franklin. 1761. Printers Bill. 

6. Palmer. Glasier for Glass. 1761. 

7. Mr. WALE. Expences of the Illumination 4*'' June 1761. P d 25"' July 1761. 

Expences of the Illumination and Firework on His Majesty's Birth Day June 4 th 1761. 

s. d. 

To the Linnen Draper's Bill .... . 4 18 9 

Ironmonger's D i 2 10 

Smith's D . i 5 o 

Carpenter's D . . . . . 9 5 10 

Lamplighter's D 3 13 o 

Expences for Wax Turpentine &c. . . . 2 n 4 

To the Colourman's Bill i 19 i 

24 15 10 


To designing & executing great Part of the Transparency 

& to Mr. GWYN (John Givynn) for his superintendency 15 15 o 

To Assistance in the Execution 990 

To Mr. Johnson for Rockets 2 14 o 

52 13 10 
Deduct Paid by the Club out of their forfeits . . . 10 10 o 

42 3 10 

(sgd) F. M. NEWTON. 
8. Constables. Bill for attendance (at the Turk's Head receipted by 2 constables). 

12 June, 1761. Committee. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Collins, Gwynn, M c Ardell, Moser, Newton, Reynolds, Seaton, Wale, 
Wilton, Yeo. 

[Consideration of bills & expenses of the Exhibition.] 

16 June, 1761. Committee. Mr. WILSON in the Chair. 

Messrs. Collins, Dalton, Gwynn, Hone, M c Ardell, Moser, Newton. 
[Bills ordered to be paid, including those of GRIGNION & NEWTON.] 

23 June, 1761. General Meeting. Present 61 Gentlemen. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Resolved. That a sum not exceeding .100-0-0 be distributed by the Committee in 
charity to such objects as may be thought worthy. 

The Minute expressing that the whole sum collected should be given in Charity being 
first repealed. 

Resolved. That Mr. NEWTON be desired to accept 25 guineas for a Piece of Plate with 
the Thanks of this Society. 

Resolved. That the expence of the Illumination 4"' June be paid by a General 
Subscription the same to be voluntary. 

Resolved. That the Exhibition for next year be advertised. 

27 June, 1761. Committee. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Dalton, M c Ardell, Moser, Newton, Wale, Wilson, Yeo. 

[Resolved. That there be a President and a Secretary chosen from and by the 

That the Committee be elected by Ballot annually in November, &c. 
Rules for conducting the meetings, &c.] 

7 July, 1761. General Meeting. Present 37 Gentlemen. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

A Motion being made & seconded. That No Person should be admitted to exhibit 
with this Society who exhibits in any other Place that Year, is passed in the affirmative. 

Repealed the motion that the Expence of the Illumination should be paid by a Voluntary 
subscription. & Resolved. That the Expence be paid out of the Stock remaining of the 
Exhibition 1760. 

Mem. That Messrs. MOSER and PAINE be the Stewards for the next 4"' June. 


25 July, 1761. Committee. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Dalton, Gwynn, Moser, Newton, Reynolds, Seaton, Wale, Wilton, Yeo. 
[Charities proposed as follows : s d 

To Mrs. MONAMY ... . 10 10 o 

Mr. BROOKING'S Children . . 10 10 o 

Mrs. MERCIER 10 10 o 

Mr. STEVENS 440 

Widow HOLLAND . . -33 

Mr. MAURER 55 

Mr. LA CAVE 440 

Mrs. MAZELL . . 55 

Mrs. REASON . . 55 

Mr. OAKLY . 55 

Mrs. RENELS . -55 

6 9 6 o] 

31 July, 1761. Committee. Mr. HAYMAN in the Chair. 

Messrs. Dalton, Gwynn, Hone, Moser, Newton, Reynolds, Seaton, Wale, Wilson. 

[Mr. NEWTON reported that he had purchased 225 os. od. 3% Consol Ann. at the 
Bank, which cost, with commission 180 us. yd. 

Came to the following determination in regard to the Charity: 

s. d. 

To Mrs. MONAMY . . . . ' 10. 10 o 
Mrs. BROOKING'S 3 Children . . 10 10 o 

N.B. To be paid to Mrs. B. and if the Eldest can be 
apprenticed for 5-5-0 ye same to be complied with.) 

Mrs. MERCIER . . . . 10 10 o 

Mr. STEVENS 440 

Widow HOLLAND paid Mr. Wilson 33 

Mr. MAURER 55 

Mr. LA CAVE 440 

Mrs. MAZELL 55 

Mrs. REASON 55 

Mr. OAKLY 55 

Mrs. RENELS 55 

Mrs. VANDERMYN . . , . 440 

13 10 o 

Mem. that the Widow WELDON receive 5-5-0 at the discretion of Mr. HOGARTH.] 





BROOKING, MRS. (Widow of Charles Brooking, 
1723-1759, marine painter.) 
1761. July 25, July 31. 

CAVE, LA. See La Cave. 

CHAMBERS, WILLIAM (aftenvards Sir) (1726- 
1 796). Architect. 

1759. Nov. 12, Dec. i. 1760. Jan. 19, 
Feb. 2, May 15, Nov. 14. 1761. Jan. 16, 
Feb. 16, Mar. 4, Mar. u, Mar. 18, Apr. 14, 
Apr. 21, Apr. 30. 

COLLINS, WILLIAM (d. 1793). Sculptor. 

1759. Nov. 12, Dec. i, Dec. 22. 1760. 
Jan. 19, Mar. 18, May 15, Nov. 7, Nov. 14, 
Dec. 8. 1761. Feb. 16, Mar. 4, Mar. 23, 
Apr. 24, Apr. 30, June 12, June 16. 

DALTON, RICHARD (1715?-! 791). Draughtsman. 

1750. Nov. 12, Dec. i, Dec. 22. 1760. 

Jan. 19, Feb. 2, Mar. 18, Nov. 7, Nov. 14. 

1761. Feb. 16, June 16, June 27, July 25, 

July 31- 

GRIGNION, CHARLES (the Elder) (1717-1810). 
1761. Mar. 23, June 16. 

GWYNN, JOHN (d. 1786). Architect. 

1760. Nov. 14, Dec. 8. 1761. Jan. 16, 
Feb. 16, Mar. 4, Mar. 18, Mar. 23, Apr. 14, 
Apr. 21, Apr. 24, Apr. 30; Loose Papers, 
No. 4 (7) after Apr. 30 ; June 12, June 16, 
July 25, July 31. 

HAYMAN, FRANCIS (1708-1776). Painter. 

1769. Nov. 12, Dec. i, Dec. 22. 1760. 
Jan. 19, Feb. 2, Feb. 26, Mar. 18, Mar. 26, 
Apr. 2, May 12, May 15, May 23, Nov. 7, 
Nov. 14, Nov. 25, Dec. 8. 1761. Jan. 16, 
Feb. 16, Feb. 19, Mar. 4, Mar. n, Mar. 18, 
Mar. 23, Apr. 7, Apr. 14, Apr. 21, Apr. 24, 
Apr. 30, June 12, June 23, June 27, July 7, 
July 25, July 31. 

HOGARTH, WILLIAM (1697-1764). Painter and 

1761. Apr. 7, Apr. 21, Apr. 24, July 31. 


1761. July 25, July 31. 

HoNE,NATHANiEL(i7i8-i784). Portrait painter. 

1759. Nov. 12, Dec. i, Dec. 22. 1760. 
Feb. 2, Mar. 18, May 12, May 15, Nov. 7, 
Nov. 14, Nov. 25, Dec. 8. 1761. Feb. 16, 
Mar. n, Mar. 18, Mar. 23, Apr. 14, Apr. 21, 
Apr. 24, Apr. 30, June 16, July 31. 

LA CAVE, F. MORELLON (fl. 1725-1765). En- 
graver. (Born in France ; pupil of Picart ; 
engraved his own portrait after Crozani, and 
several other portraits, &c. In June, 1765, 
he was recommended to receive four guineas 
from the Charity, but the money was not 
claimed. The inference is that he died that 
year, or that he returned to France. Nagler 
calls him ' Franz Morellan de la Cave '. Red- 
grave has confused him with P. Le Cave, 
the water-colour painter, and gives a wrong 
date 1769 for an application for assistance 
to the Society of Artists. Benezit calls him : 
' Dessinateur et graveur en Angleterre de 
1726 a 1766. Peut-etre fils de T. La Cave, 
d'origine franfaise.') 
1761. July 25, July 31. 

LOCKMAN, MR. (?an artist). 

1760. Nov. 14. 

MARDELL, JAMES (17297-1765). Mezzotint 

1760. Nov. 14, Nov. 25, Dec. 8. 1761. 
Jan. 16, Feb. 16, Mar. 4, Mar. n, Mar. 18, 
Mar. 23, Apr. 14, Apr. 21, Apr. 24, Apr. 30, 
June 12, June 16, June 27. 

MAURER, MR. (Redgrave and Bryan give the 
name of ' J. Maurer ', who drew and engraved 
several views of London, dated 1741-46. 
Bryan says he was born in Switzerland. 
The name ' Mr. Maurer ' also occurs among 
the subscribers to Kneller's Academy in 1713. 
Vertue MSS., B.M. Add. 23082. Vertue 
has added a note : ' Silver works,' against the 
name, so Maurer probably began as an en- 
graver on silver.) 

1761. July 25, July 31. 



MAZELL, MRS. (Perhaps mother of PeterMazell, 
the engraver, who exhibited at the Society of 
Artists from 1761 until i79f, and at the Royal 
Academy in 1797.) 
1761. July 25, July 31. 

MERCIER, MRS. (DOROTHY). (Widow of Philip 
Mercier, 1689-1760, portrait painter. She 
exhibited four miniatures and two flower 
pieces in water-colours with the Society of 
Artists in 1761.) 

1761. Mar. 4, Mar. n, July 25, July 31. 

MONAMY, MRS. (Widow of Peter Monamy, 
1689?-! 749, marine painter. Cf.Vertue MSS., 
B.M. Add. 23074, f. 5.) 
1761. July 25, July 31. 

MOSER, GEORGE MICHAEL (1704-1783). Chaser 
and enameller. 

1759. Nov. 12, Dec. i. 1760. Jan. 19, Feb. 2, 
Feb. 26, Mar.iS, May 12 (' To attend Mr. New- 
ton in the Chaise of a Piece of Plate'), May 15, 
Nov. 7, Nov. 14, Nov. 25, Dec. 8. 1761. 
Jan. 16, Feb. 16, Mar. 4, Mar. n, Mar. 18, 
Mar. 23, Apr. 14, Apr. 21, Apr. 24, Apr. 30, 
June 12, June 16, June 27, July 7, July 25, 
July 31. 

NEWTON, FRANCIS MILNER (1720-1794). Por- 
trait painter. 

1759. Nov. 12 (elected Secretary), Dec. i, 
Dec. 22. 1760. Feb. 26, Mar. 18, May 12 
(To receive a Present to the value of Twenty 
Guineas), May 15, May 23, Nov. 7, Nov. 14, 
Nov. 25, Dec. 8. 1761. Jan. 16, Feb. 16, 
Mar. 4, Mar. n, Mar. 18, Apr. 14 (' To get the 
Minutes transcribed in a Book'), Apr. 21, 
Apr. 24, Apr. 30, June 12, June 16, June 23 
(' To be desired to accept 2$ guineas for a Piece 
of Plate'), June 27, July 25, July 31. 


1761. July 25, July 31. 

PAINE, JAMES (1725-1789). Architect. 
1761. Jan. 16, July 7. 


1761. July 25, July 31. 


1761. July 25, July 31. 

REYNOLDS, JOSHUA (afterwards Sir) (1723- 
1792). Portrait painter. 

1769. Nov. 12. 1760. Feb. 2, Feb. 26, 
Mar.iS, May 12 (' To return thanks to Mr. John- 

son for his assistance '), May 15, Nov. 14, 
Nov. 25, Dec. 8. 1761. Jan. 16 (To find an 
Exhibition Room), Feb. 16, Mar. u, Mar. 23, 
Apr. 24 (' Mentioned Lady Rocking/tain's re- 
quest'), Apr. 30, June 12, July 25, July 31. 

ROOKER, EDWARD (1712 ?-i774). Engraver. 

1759 Nov. 12, Dec. i, Dec. 22. 1760. 
Jan. 19, Feb. 26, Nov. 14, Dec. 8. 1761. 
Feb. 16, Mar. 4, Mar. n, Apr. 14, Apr. 24, 
Apr. 30. 

SANDBY, THOMAS (1721-1798). Architect and 

1759. Nov. 12. 1760. Jan. 19. 

SEATON, CHRISTOPHER (d. 1 768). Seal engraver. 
1759. Nov. 12, Dec. i, Dec. 22. 176O. 
Jan. 19, Feb. 2, Feb. 26, Mar. 18, May 12, 
May 15, Nov. 7, Nov. 14, Nov. 25, Dec. 8. 
1761. Jan. 16, Feb. 16, Mar. 4, Mar. 18, 
Mar. 23, Apr. 14, Apr. 21, Apr. 24, Apr. 30, 
June 12, July 25, July 31. 

STEVENS, MR. (Perhaps John Stevens, the 
engraver, mentioned by Redgrave, who says : 
' He practised in London about the middle 
of the eighteenth century. He engraved with 
C. Grignion a series of English views.' This 
was, no doubt, the Stevens who engraved 
some views of London after Canaletto. 
Chaloner-Smith mentions 'H. Stevens', who 
in 1729 painted a portrait of Dr. Jacob dc 
Castro Sarmento, which was engraved in 
mezzotint by A. Miller.) 
1761. July 25, July 31. 

STRANGE, ROBERT (afterwards Sir) (1721-1792). 

1759. Nov. 12, Dec. i, Dec. 22. 1760. 
Feb. 2, Feb. 26, Mar. 18, May 12, May 15. 

(Formerly Susanna Bloemendael, widow of 
Herman Van der Myn, portrait and history 
painter, who was born in Amsterdam, 1684, 
and died in London, 1741, leaving five sons 
and one daughter, all of whom were painters. 
The Mrs. Van der Mijn who exhibited por- 
traits and flower and fruit pieces at the Free 
Society, 1764-72, was probably the wife of 
one of the sons.) 
1761. July 31. 

WALE, SAMUEL (d. 1786). Painter. 

1759. Nov. 12, Dec. i, Dec. 22. 176O. 
Jan. 19, Feb. 2, Feb. 26, Mar. 18, May 12, 


May 15, Nov. 7, Nov. 14, Nov. 25. 1761. 
Jan. 16, Feb. 16, Mar. 4, Mar. n, Mar. 18 
(' Produced Sketch for Frontispiece '), Mar. 23 
('his Design approved'), Apr. 14, Apr. 21, 
Apr. 24, Apr. 30 ; Loose Papers, No. 4 (7) 
after Apr. 30; June 12, June 27, July 25, 
July 31. 

WELDON, ' WIDOW '. (The name 'Hen.Welden* 
appears among the subscribers to Cheron and 
Vanderbank's Academy in St. Martin's Lane, 
in 1720- William Hogarth was a subscriber 
at the same time. Vertue MSS., B.M. Add. 
23082, ff. 35, 36.) 
1761. July 31. 

WILSON, RICHARD (1714-1782). Landscape and 
portrait painter. 

1759. Nov. 12, Dec. i, Dec. 22. 1760. 
Jan. 19, Feb. 2, Feb. 26, Mar. 18, May 12, 

May 15, Nov. 7, Nov. 14, Nov. 25, Dec ; 8. 
1761. Jan. 16, Feb. 16, Mar. 4, Mar. u, 
Mar. 18, Apr. 14, Apr. 21, Apr. 24, Apr. 30, 
June 16, June 27, July 31 (Received 3 Guineas 
for Widow Holland}. 

WILTON, JOSEPH (1722-1803). Sculptor. 

1759. Nov. 12, Dec. i, Dec. 22. 1760. 
Jan. 19, Feb. 2, Feb. 26, Mar. 18, May 12, 
May 15, Nov. 14, Nov. 25. 1761. Jan. 16, 
Feb. 16, Mar. 4, Mar. n, Apr. 14, Apr. 24, 
Apr. 30, June 12, July 25. 

YEO, RICHARD (d. 1779). Medallist. 

1759. Nov. 12, Dec. i, Dec. 22. 176O. 
Jan. 19, Feb. 2, Mar. 18, May 12, May 15, 
Nov. 14, Nov. 25, Dec. 8. 1761. Jan. 16, 
Feb. 16, Mar. 4, Mar. 18, Mar. 23, Apr. 14, 
Apr. 21, Apr. 24, Apr. 30, June 12, June 27, 
July 25. 

List of Members of the Walpole Society 


The Rt. Hon. Lord Aberdare of 

Royal Academy of Arts, The 

Library of. 

C. Morland Agnew, Esq. 
G. Colin Agnew, Esq. 
Sir George W. Agnew, Bart., M.P. 
Charles Aitken, Esq., Keeper, The 

National Gallery, British Art. 
A. A. Allen, Esq., M.P. 
Messrs. Edw. G. Allen & Son. 
Sir Walter Armstrong. 
Thomas Ash by, Esq., Litt.D. 

Sir Hickman Beckett Bacon, Bart. 

J. W. Bacon, Esq. 

C. H. Collins Baker, Esq., Keeper and 

Secretary, The National Gallery. 
Mrs. Sidney Ball. 
John Ballinger, Esq., Librarian of 

the National Library of Wales. 
Mrs. Mary M. Banks. 
SirC. A. Montague Barlow, K.B.E., 


R. Bateman, Esq., Curator, Man- 
chester IVhilworth Institute. 
The Earl Bathurst, C.M.G. 
A. R. Bayley, Esq., F.R.Hist.S. 
Harold Bayley, Esq. 
The Earl Beauchamp, K.G. 
Arthur C. Behrend, Esq. 
Mrs. Clara Bell. 
C. F. Bell, Esq., F.S.A., Keeper of 

the Department of Fine Art, The 

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 
Anthony Belt, Esq. 
H. Bendixson, Esq. 
Laurence Binyon, Esq., Asst. Keeper 

of Prints and Drawings, British 


F. Frost Blackman, Esq., F.R.S. 
R. K. Blair, Esq. 
Sam D. Bles, Esq. 
Bodleian Library, Oxford. 
Bootle. Public Library. 
Boston Athenaeum, Boston, Mass., 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 

Mass., U.S.A. 

Boston Public Library, Mass ,U.S.A. 

The Rev. F. C. Bozman. 

Allan H. Bright, Esq. 

The Rev. F. E. Brightman. 

Brighton. Public Library. 

British Museum, Department of 

Printed Books. 
British Museum, Department of 

Prints and Drawings. 
James Britten, Esq. 
Miss Margaret Brooke. 
Eric Brown, Esq., Director of the 

National Gallery of Canada. 
Miss Henrietta Brown. 
Oliver F. Brown, Esq. 
Messrs. Browne & Browne. 
Charles Richard Buckley, Esq. 
The Rev. Herbert Bull. 
Miss Margaret H. Bulley. 
Burlington Fine Arts Club. 
Ayerst H. Buttery, Esq. 

H. Johnstone Campbell, Esq. 
Canada, The National Gallery of. 
James L. Caw, Esq., Director, 

National Gallery of Scotland. 
Arthur B. Chamberlain, Esq. 
John E. Champney, Esq. 
G. A. F. M. Chatwin, Esq. 
Miss Alice D. Clarke. 
George Clausen, Esq., R.A. 
A. B. Clifton, Esq. 
Sydney C. Cockerel!, Esq., Director, 

Filzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. 
Messrs. P. and D. Colnaghi and 


Sir Sidney Colvin, D.Litt. 
Sir Edward T. Cook, K.B.E. 
Herbert F. Cook, Esq., F.S.A, 

Trustee of the National Portrait 


Royal Cortissoz, Esq. 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Crawford, 

K.T., P.C., LL.D., Trustee of the 

National Portrait Gallery. 
Wilson Crewdson, Esq. 
The Rt. Hon. the Marquess of 

Crewe, K.G., P.C. 

R. H. Curtis, Esq. 

The Rt. Hon. the Earl Curzon 

of Kedleston, K.G., G.C.S.I.. 

G.C.I. E., P.C., Trustee of the 

National Gallery. 
Lionel Cust, Esq., C.V.O., F.S.A. 

Sir Thomas L. Devitt, Bart. 

E. Rimbault Dibdin, Esq., Curator, 
The Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. 

The Viscount Dillon, Chairman of 
Board of Trustees of National 
Portrait Gallery. 

Arthur Dixon, Esq. 

Campbell Dodgson, Esq., Keeper of 
Prints and Drawings, British 

Captain R. Langton Douglas, Direc- 
tor, National Gallery of Ireland. 

Dundee Free Library Committee. 

Alfred P. Durlacher, Esq. 

George L. Durlacher, Esq. 

Lady Durning-Lawrence. 

H. L. Ehrich, Esq. 
The Countess of Elgin. 
The Rev. William C. Emeris. 
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Exeter. The Royal Albert Memorial 
Public Library. 

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Miss Feilding. 
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The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cam- 

The Hon. J. W. Fortescue, C.V.O. 
Charles Frederick Fox, Esq. 

E. L. Franklin, Esq. 

The Galignani Library, Paris. 
Percival Gaskell, Esq., R.E. 
J. P. Gilson, Esq., Keeper of Manu- 
scripts, British Museum. 
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F. W. Goodenough, Esq. 

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Messrs. Leggatt Bros. 

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The Wallace Collection. 
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Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 

York, U.S.A. 
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National Portrait Gallery. 
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gate, K.C.M.G. 

New South Wales. Public Library. 

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of Art. 

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C B., P.C., Trustee of the National 

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K.G., G.C.V.O., P.C. 
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The National Library of Wales. 

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Members are particularly requested to draw the attention of the 
Hon. Secretary, MR. A. J. FINBERG, 47 Holland Road, Kensing- 
ton, London, W. 14, to any omissions or errors in the above list. 

N Walpole Society, London 
12 The volume of the 

W3 Walpole Society